Agriculture and Environment 1
Report on Greenhouse gas emission in Agriculture and environment
Name of Student
Agriculture and E …
Agriculture and Environment 1
Report on Greenhouse gas emission in Agriculture and environment
Name of Student
Agriculture and Environment 2
Emission of greenhouse gases concerning agricultural practices totals 582 million tons of
metrics. The agricultural scenarios involved are livestock and cereal that is cattle and barley
respectively. Most of the emissions come from enteric fermentation which is the microbial
activity occurring in the digestive system of the cattle and the use of fertilizers for the crops
scenario. The important greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are always studied in
their descending order of magnitude that is from methane down to nitrous oxide then finally to
carbon dioxide. Nitrous oxide is produced in soils through the use of fertilizers and that includes
the use of organic fertilizers like compost or manure and the use of inorganic or commercial
fertilizers (Barbara V. Braatz et. al, 2014).
The major quota of cattle greenhouse gas release comes from methane gas that is mostly
produced during the process of enteric fermentation in ruminants. During digestion in
ruminants, there is anatural occurrence when the microbes present in the first chamber in the
stomach called the rumen to break down the feedstuff producing aby-product of methane gas.
The gas is produced through belching (Chu THoanh et. al, 2015). Plants, produce carbon
dioxide during respiration and store the rest in their body hence they are deliberated as a
neutral basis of carbon dioxide.
Asimilar process as enteric fermentation occurs in plants producing methane gas from manure.
Storage of manure for long in an anaerobic environment, methane gas is likely to be produced.
Itcan be generated in manure storage or animal housing or during application. Also, methane
gas can be produced from manure accumulated on grazing lands (Karl et. al, 2021). Nitrous
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oxide gas is also produced from the surfaces of manure storage and manure in bedded packs
Crops during their growth absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the process of
photosynthesis and store itin the soil. During the respiration of plants, they produce carbon
dioxide in the environment (Martin et. al, 2016). Some carbon dioxide is stored in the soil for
longer periods resulting in acarbon increase in the soil resulting in to process known as a
carbon sink or carbon sink and crop production in the same soil leads to anet sink in the
The agricultural sector has been estimated to emit 24.8% of the total global greenhouse gases.
Itincludes 0.5% of carbon dioxide released from enteric fermentation and the agricultural soils.
The principal emissions from agricultural activities mostly contain methane from enteric
fermentation, carbon dioxide from the decay of soil organic carbon, and nitrogen oxide from
artificial manure and fertilizer. The effects of the gases on global warming are different (Mark
Liebig et. al 2014). Agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from the changes in the soil organic
carbon stock, methane, and nitrous oxide are highly available across ambiances and managing
practices. The balance between soil organic carbon sequestration and decomposition is
influenced by the quantity and nature of carbon inputs (Matthew John Franchetti et. al, 2012).
Nitrous oxide emissions are highly enabled by the warm heat, increased water content, and a
supply of decomposable carbon and nitrate. Studies show that there is alikelihood of
greenhouse emissions of gases increasing due to the farming practices and the way of livestock
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rearing. An increase in the amount of carbon that is sequestered in the soil can stop the yearly
increase in carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere and thus mitigate the change in
climate (Nations, 2014) .The addition of pasture in the agricultural practice system is an
efficient way of maximizing the soil organic carbon appropriation owing to the high inputs of
carbon from the meadows (Solli, 2014). Consequently, in cropping practices, provisional
pasture stages within cropping alternations surge soil organic carbon.
The carbon footprint calculation criteria were used in livestock rearing and crop production to
summarize all the greenhouse gases that are directly or indirectly associated with the materials
used in the cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock (National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(U.S.), 2016) .The direct emission of nitrogen oxide gas from the soil is induced by the use of
nitrogenous fertilizer and itcan be estimated by an equation as;
EN N2O =N Ã—EF N20 Ã—44 /28 Ã—265
Where N is the chemical fertilizer in KG, EF N20 refers to the emission factor for nitrogen oxide
induced by the application of nitrous fertilizer, 44/28 is the total molecular weight of nitrogen
gas relative to nitrogen oxide, and lastly, 298 is the total GPW of nitrogen oxide in ahorizon of
100 years. The same equation is applicable for carbon dioxide gas but its molecular weight is
12/44. Carbon dioxide emission from the use of machinery on the farm is calculated in
accordance with the total amount of fuel, remaining oily rate of the fuel used, and the
discharge factor of the fuel as shown in the equation below;
EM=âˆ‘(EF iâ‹…W iâ‹…NCV i)
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Where EMis the carbon emitted from the use of machinery, W iis the quantity of fuel spent, and
NCV iis the net calorific value for Iwhich is the fuel.
Indirect emissions of greenhouse gases come from the manufacture of the farm inputs used in
crop protection, production, and management that including fertilizer, plastic film, and
pesticides. Itcan be calculated using the equation;
EAl=âˆ‘AI Ã—EF Al
Where EAlis the greenhouse gas emission from the manufacture of fertilizers, agricultural films,
and pesticides, Al is the number of inputs in kilogram per hectare of land, and EF Aldenotes the
emission factor of the industrial element of the input material.
For cattle production, greenhouse gases are assessed by considering all the greenhouse gases
associated with the use of materials, energy used for the production, and farm management. A
life cycle study is used to show the description of the total greenhouse gases emitted by
livestock (Karl, 2021). The carbon footprint is articulated in carbon dioxide corresponding per
unit of cattle production. The emission of methane from enteric fermentation is estimated
using the equation;
EEF=H Ã—EF EF Ã—28
Where EEFdenotes the amount of methane gas emitted from the process of fermentation, H is
the quantity of ruminant present, EF EFis the factor of emission for the process of fermentation,
and 28 is the total GWP for methane.
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Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions are also emitted during manure treatment using the
EM=H Ã—EF CH4 Ã—28 +(N2O D(mm) +N2OG(mm) )Ã—265
Where H represents the number of heads, EF CH4 is the factor of emission for methane gas,
N2OD(mm) denotes the direct production of nitrous oxide during the management of manure,
and N2OG(mm) denotes the direct nitrous oxide emission during manure treatment.
Greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy on the farm constitute the fuel and electricity
used in the process of farm management (Barbara V. Braatz et. al, 2014). They can be
calculated by the following respective equations;
EF=(EF iâˆ‘â‹…W iâ‹…NCV i)
Efis the carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fuel, W iis the quantity of fuel used, NCV i
denotes the total calorific value of fuel shown by i,and EF iis the factor of emission for fuel. The
next equation has Eas the quantity of electricity consumed during the whole life cycle study of
cattle production and EF Edenotes the electricity generation emission aspect.
The indirect emission of greenhouse gases in cattle production during the manufacture of
forage is calculated by the equation;
EForage =FCÃ—EF C+FPÃ—EF P+ET
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Where EForage is the emission of greenhouse gases by the forge inputs, FCis the number of crops
used in the manufacture of forage, EF Cdenotes the emission factor, FPis the sum of forage used
in cattle production, EF Pis the emission factor in the processing of forage, and ETis the
greenhouse gas emissions by the transportation of forage.
Emission factor for Fertilizer, Plastic film, and pesticide manufacturing
Emission Factors for Enteric Fermentation
Enteric Fermentation Emission Factors for cattle
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Emission Factors for Electricity Generation
Detailed output of greenhouse gas emissions from barley production
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The CFs of cattle and barley production is calculated based on the methodology conducted
above. Comparing the production of barley to other crops like maize leaves barley has the
highest CF which is equivalent to 3942.25Kg CO 2-eq per hectare. Proportions of distinct inputs
in the CF are calculated to evaluate the emission sources to total CF (Laborde Debucquet et. al,
2020). For barley, about 61% (as shown in figure 1below) is found to have come from the
nitrous fertilizer use including nitrogen oxide emission from the soil and greenhouse gas
emission from the manufacture of nitrous fertilizer. The use of machines is the second in the
emission of greenhouse gases (Pira, Kaje, 2015).
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Figure 1Greenhouse gases emission from barley cultivation
The sensitivity of the net CF to distinct inputs and grain harvests, including pesticide, fertilizer,
machine operation, and irrigation is evaluated as shown in table 1.5 (Pira, 2015) .The amount of
CF responds differently to changes in the diverse parameters which are decreased and
increased by 10 during evaluation to understand their effects.
Sensitivity to Barley inputs to net CF (in %)
For livestock production, the direct greenhouse gas emissions that are from enteric
fermentation, machine operation, and manure treatment and those from indirect emissions
like forage manufacturing are considered for the CF. Using the equations provided in the
methodology the value of methane, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide can be easily calculated
(Chu THoanh et. al, 2015). The sensitivity analysis of the net CF to distinct inputs from the
cattle production includes emission of methane from fermentation, and energy used for
management of the farm is as shown in table 1.6 below.
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The figure below shows cattle production shows that 53% of greenhouse gases produced by
cattle keeping come from forage input, 45% from enteric fermentation, and 2% from farm
Figure 2Contribution of cattle keeping to greenhouse gas emission
Sensitivity of cattle keeping to net CF (in %)
The major part of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of barley or any related grain-
related crop devised from the soil and manufacture of fertilizer. The emissions from the soil are
aresult of the usage of nitrogenous fertilizer which introduces nitrogen oxide in the soil and
also the liming process which persuades carbon dioxide emission (Mohammad Zaman et. al,
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2021). Nitrogen is also introduced through nitrification and denitrification processes.
Greenhouse emission coming from the soil contributes to half of the total emission from barley
production. Several studies show that instead of using fertilizers in the field, leguminous crops
that fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil can be incorporated to reduce the amount of nitrogen
dioxide gas released into the atmosphere. The figure obtained from the CF is at the lower end
of the range cited by Goulding et al. (2018), due partly to the sandy soil in this scenario
requiring alower input of nitrogen compared to the deep clay soils evaluated by Goulding et al.
According to Moran, (2011), cattle production contributes up to an approximation of 18% of
the anthropogenic greenhouse gas releases majorly as nitrous oxide or methane. The
production of greenhouse gases from livestock can be minimized by breeding high-weight
animals and reducing the rate of mortalities (Pira, 2015) .The ruminants can be fed on legumes
or corn so that they produce less methane gas. Manure management can be seriously puzzled
out to reduce the amount of nitrous oxide and methane both before and after application.
Carbon footprinting in cattle production seems to be instinctual and keeping with the beginning
of emanations accounting to the manufacturing programs. As this study suggests, there are
alternative methods that could be used to reduce the emission of such harmful gases to the
environment. The study quantifies the CF of cattle production. Greenhouse gas emissions from
forage manufacturing and enteric fermentation significantly contributed to the net CF.
Concentrating only on the total greenhouse gas release stages can comprehend the successful
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attainments agriculture has completed in its areas of sustainability and productivity. They all
need to be put into consideration in every policy discussion adjoining determinations to
decrease carbon emissions. Farmers too have contributed to the reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions by sequestering the amount of carbon in the soil.
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Barbara V. Braatz, B. J.S. M. D. M. M. P. J.F. F., 2014. Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories:
Interim Results from the U.S. Country Studies Program. 2nd ed. Liverpool: Springer Science &
Chu THoanh, V. S. R. J., 2015. Climate Change and Agricultural Water Management in
Developing Countries. 2nd ed. Wales: CABI.
Karl, K. T. F. N., 2021. Methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from food systems:
Domestic food transport. 1st ed. Manchester: Food & Agriculture Org.
Laborde Debucquet, D. M. A. ,.M. W. P. P. V. V. R., 2020. Modeling the impacts of agricultural
support policies on emissions from agriculture. 1st ed. Liverpool: Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
Mark Liebig, A. F. R. F. F., 2014. Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases: Coordinated
Agricultural Research Through GRACEnet to Address Our Changing Climate. 2nd ed. Birmingham:
Martin, M., 2016. Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Flower Producers in Ecuador. 2nd
ed. Wales: Anchor Academic Publishing.
Matthew John Franchetti, D. A., 2012. Carbon Footprint Analysis: Concepts, Methods,
Implementation, and Case Studies. 2nd ed. Crafford: CRC Press.
Mohammad Zaman, L. H. C. M., 2021. Measuring Emission of Agricultural Greenhouse Gases
and Developing Mitigation Options using Nuclear and Related Techniques: Applications of
Nuclear Techniques for GHGs. 2nd ed. Bristol: Springer International Publishing.
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National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.), U. S. D. o. E. O. o. S. a. T. I., 2016. Emissions and
Reduction of Greenhouse Gases from Agriculture and Food Manufacturing. 1st ed. Birmingham:
United States. Department of Energy.
Nations, F. a. A. O. o. t.U., 2014. Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock: AGlobal
Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. 1st ed. Wales: Food & Agriculture Org.
Nations, F. a. A. O. o. t.U., 2019. Five practical actions towards low-carbon livestock. 1st ed.
Bristol: Food & Agriculture Org.
Organization, F. a. A., 2016. The State of Food and Agriculture, 2016: Climate change,
agriculture, and food security. 2nd ed. Wales: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Pira, K., 2015. Paths to aSustainable Agricultural System: Pathways to aNordic Agricultural and
Food System with Reduced Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants: Policy Brief. 2nd
ed. Manchester: Nordic Council of Ministers.
Solli, C., 2014. Global Carbon Footprints: Methods and Import/Export Corrected Results from the
Nordic Countries in Global Carbon Footprint Studies. 1st ed. Birmingham: Nordic Council of
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