Target a udience for this information
booklet : NURSES
COVID – 19
Table of Contents
Introduction …… …
Target a udience for this information
booklet : NURSES
COVID – 19
Table of Contents
Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 3
Description of the public health problem and health protection issue …. 5
Immediate and long -term impacts of Covid -19 on health ……………………….. 7
Attention to protect nurses during the Covid -19 pandemic ……………………. 9
Evaluation and application of health protection tools ………………………….. .. 11
Conclusion ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 13
Reference List ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 14
Nurses are essential in the community of the healthcare sector. They are
responsible for rendering effective and quality care to patients by
communicating with them and understanding them through the
administration of medicines and other treatment measures . The
healthcare industry is highly supported by nurses as a backbone of this
industry. With an increase in the population of the world, the number of
people getting ill is also increasing. However, there is a shortfall in the
number of nurses to meet the growing requirements of patients (Barratt
2018). Thus, it is extremely important to sustain the workforce of
nurses with the provision of all kinds of facilities and amenities so that
they can work in a positive and comfortable working environment.
Several reasons are responsible for the shortage of nurses, and Covid -19
is one of the major reasons making it worse (Buheji and Buhaid 2020).
In modern healthcare, nurses play an integral role in the delivery of care
of high standards. It has been found that pat ients prefer spending more
time with nurses by talking to them in comparison to physicians for the
same. This happens because nurses know that getting to know them
properly helps in achieving their recovery fast.
In this brochure, the impacts of the out break of the Covid -19
pandemic on nurses, along with the ways of preventing them, will be
discussed with the application and evaluation of various tools and
techniques of health protection. An integral part of the essay will be the
behavioral changes in th e health of nurses, workload faced by them,
economic setbacks faced by nurses, along with several other issues. This
essay will shed light on the impact of covid -19 on various aspects of the
nursing profession that deviates their smooth functioning to prov ide
scope in the future to retain the community of nurses. This will enable
nurses to serve the population flawlessly in a sustained manner.
Add content here .
Description of the public
health problem and
health protection issue
â€œCovid -19 is a pandemic that started in Wuhan,
China, in the year 2019, and within a span of 2
years, its outbreak has disrupted the normal
living of people on earth to a great extent.â€
All sectors of operation have been impacted severely ( Torales et al .
2020 ). The healthcare sector is one of the sectors that has suffered the
greatest setback after having been severely hit by the pandemic of
Covid -19. This is due to the fact that healthc are workers face multiple
hazards in physical, mental as well as social well -being. The World
Health Organisation, along with coordination from different other
support services and organisations, has been working with immense
efforts to save the world from the hazards of this viral infection.
Surveillance data on a global basis lay emphasis on counting the number
of deaths and infections due to Covid -19 (Almeida 2020). As this is an
infectious disease, it has a feature of spreading very rapidly through
clos e contact and hence, the worldwide lockdown was declared to
implement social distancing in different countries.
As the number of infections was vast, nurses and other health
workers had to work day and night to meet the incoming number of
infected pati ents. It has been found that this disease has a major global
impact which has given rise to various other additional health problems
with major disadvantages and compromises on the health of people.
This was mandatory for preventing the healthcare infrastr ucture from
breaking down. Nurses act as the frontline workers in the outbreak of
the pandemic. As nurses come in direct contact with the patients, they
have a high vulnerability to acquiring these highly infectious patients
(Purba 2020). When nurses conti nue to provide essential services
during the pandemic, nurses become exposed to an increased risk of
infection from Covid -19. There were many countries in the year 2020
where nurses and other healthcare workers reported maximum
infection from Covid -19. By March 2021, around 17000 healthcare
workers died of this infectious disease. This issue was serious from the
beginning itself and gradually, providing protection to nurses became
the need of the hour by 2021.
One of the major health protection issues face d by Covid -19 is the
shortage of the global nursing workforce while dealing with the mass of
patients who were admitted due to coronavirus infection. However, the
severity of this issue is not only a shortage of trained nurses who can
provide full care to patients in isolation in intensive care units. This
issue is indeed a serious one regarding the other disasters or diseases
nurses have to deal with. The problem becomes a major one in
hampering the daily routine of nurses as well. The major issues which
the nurses have been facing in this serious situation are critical shortage
of coworkers, beds, protective equipment as well as medical supplies.
Some of the issues that nurses have been facing as frontline workers,
calling for the provision of health prote ction to them are medical risks
and injuries along with infection and depression from the anxiety of
nurses about their health as a result of stress, workload and infections.
Nurses are also depressed about their families and children
who might be put at risk when they come in contact with the nurses.
This makes the group of frontline workers feel that they are at risk, and
they seek the protection of their health. Another serious issue that
nurses report making them call for health protection is n ot being
allowed to wear masks to prevent the general public from being
panicked. In the early days of the onset of the pandemic, nurses were
made to do so to prevent the public from panicking. This was an
unjustified and illogical strategy that increased the chances of infection
among nurses by fastening up the transmission manifold ( Vejdani et al.
2021 ). The nurses working in CCU units have to not only manage the
risks of contagion but also have to cope with the newly implemented
protocols of pharmaceutic al treatment and diagnosis. They have to
constantly witness the deaths of patients alone as a result of strict
measures of isolation. The emergency services of healthcare have been
put under high pressure for rendering in moments that are highly
critical ( GonzÃ¡lez -Gil et al. 2021 ). Nowadays, tests for Covid -19 are
essential for nurses rather than normal people so that they can remain
assured and work without any mental fear. This is because a large
proportion of nurses have restricted themselves from going to work for
fear of acquiring infection. The global shortfall of nurses jeopardizes the
Sustainable Health Goals by 2030, which is an aim made by the
international community in the year 2015.
Professional nurses can bring competent care in response to
dis asters, but they are immensely challenged to provide care when the
type of care they provide puts them at increased risk. In the situation of
Covid -19, nurses are found to struggle while feeling unsafe in the
situation of response at times of resource scar city. In such high -risk
situations, nurses mostly remain concerned about professional health
and legal and ethical protection. However, it is suggested that nurses
should decide how much high -quality care they can provide to patients.
At the same time, the y must also take care of themselves and their near
and dear ones. During such times, organisational support for the nursing
fraternity is a non -negotiable necessity.
There should be effective communication between the
administration of organisations and the nurses regarding their ability to
provide high -quality nursing practice ( American Nurses Association
2020 ). Their concerns and issues have to be valued at all costs, and
nurses must not be retaliated against for posing their concerns.
Immediate and lo ng –
term impacts of Covid –
19 on health
Health and social care workers have been carrying a very heavy burden
throughout the crisis of Covid -19. In the quest to meet the challenge of
controlling the infection from the virus, there have been many
consequence s faced by the nurses ( Kim et al ., 2021 ). Thus, there has
been a priority to maintain their well -being. It has been found that
nurses serving patients during Covid -19 have been suffering from
psychological tolls such as depression, obsessive -compulsive dis order,
insomnia, distress and any other kinds of mental health issues ( De Kock
et al. , 2021 ). Nurses have been found to suffer from anxiety attacks
along with frustration because of lack of knowledge, changes in the
environment along with the fear of getti ng the infection for themselves
as well as their families. A study conducted in April 2020 stated that the
prevalence of anxiety among nurses was around 23%, the prevalence of
depression was around 22.5%, and the percentage of prevalence of
insomnia was ar ound 40% ( Sampaio, Sequeira and Teixeira 2021 ).
Due to a shortage of protective equipment and other necessary
preventive measures, nurses felt fearful of doing their duties with
compassion (Razu et al. 2021). The nurses did not get any kind of leisure
time due to the overloaded work they had to do during the peak phases
of the pandemic. This eventually increased the proneness of the nurses
in increasing alcohol consumption. Nurses no longer can trust th eir
colleagues during difficult situations at work, which further aggravates
the conditions of depression ( Hannemann et al . 2021 ). Certain levels of
depression made nurses stubborn from getting vaccinated against
Covid -19 as well. Due to the outbreak of th e pandemic, many nurses
were shunned and stigmatized by their neighborhood and restricted
from staying at their houses due to the nature of the job they did. These
nurses have been facing huge mental pressure ever since the pandemic
broke out (Kim et al . 2021). Due to the long -term and close vicinity of
nurses with Covid -19, the coping ability of nurses began to fall, and this
has been ignored by many healthcare organisations. The protection of
the mental health of nurses is thus of vital importance for co ntrolling the
spread of the pandemic along with the protection of long -term health.
A physical health impact that has been found to occur among nurses
during the covid -19 outbreak, which may be a long -term impact on the
health of nurses, is dermatological impact. The usage of highly
protective N -95 masks and personal protective equipment is always
recommended for any worker working in hospitals, and hence nurses
are also bound to do the same. They were recommended by the
guidelines as laid out by the World Health Organisation (Etgu and Oner
2021). This creates a barrier between the pathogens and the nurses. Due
to the shortage of clinical and nursing staff and personal protective
equipment, nurses had to work for longer hours. Gas, heat as well as
moisture i ncreased friction between the skin and the PPE.
A hot and humid microclimate aggravates the chances of reactions in the
skin ( Yuan et al. 2021 ). Friction and pressure, along with shear forces
that are caused by the PPE at the point of contact with skin, are
associated with the usage of PPE. Sweating and moisture that happen
due to discomfort and stress which are caused by extended hours of
work lead to softening of the skin and reduces its tolerance of the skin
(KÄ±sacÄ±k and Ã–zyÃ¼rek 2022 ). This eventually increased the vulnerability
to skin injuries. Moreover, these problems are associated with negative
impacts on workers who do not want to use such equipment effectively.
Attention to protect
nurses during the Covid –
Nurses usually work in clos e contact with the patients and hence are
highly vulnerable to Covid -19. To reduce the risk of nurses, it is
important to establish some protocols which shall lower the risk of
infections. Educating nurses, establishing a proper shift schedule and
taking a dvantage of the system of infection control are some protocol
measures that can be taken. Adequate education nurses about
guidelines for using PPE kits, maintaining hand hygiene, disinfection of
waste and medical management of waste along with sterilisatio n of
devices for patient care ( Turale, Meechamnan and Kunaviktikul 2020 ).
Recorded videos of ways to wear and remove the PPE garments must be
shown to nurses so that their utilization can be fully implemented. With
the increase in the number of patients du ring an outbreak, a shortage of
nurses is bound to occur. Therefore, it is important to implement
schedules of work that will balance the work -life of nurses along with
their personal lives.
They will be motivated to work with dedication, and feelings of
frustration will be less among the nurses (Davidson and Szanton 2020).
Despite providing proper training to nurses, it is not ensured that they
will be fully aware of the exposure to infection while treating patients.
This especially happens when the nurses feel exhausted or stressed. The
infection control system helps in providing real -time monitoring of
infections and facilitates instant correction. Monitoring of nurses must
be conducted on c omputers in separated and isolated areas (Huang et al.
2020). Nurses should be taught to take complete advantage of the
system of infection control.
application of health
For the protection of nurses from acquiring the infe ction of Covid -19,
some of the effective health protection tools are Personal Protection
Equipment such as coverall gowns, face shields and goggles, face masks
and hand gloves for rapidly detecting the virus in the body of the
People who come in close contact with Covid infected patients
are the ones who are most at risk infected patients. Personal Protective
Equipment is specialized tool that is worn by a healthcare worker for
protection against infectious agents.
â€œProtection of the health of n urses is an important
strategy that must be ensured to cater to infected
patients while keeping nurses safe simultaneously.â€
Add content here
The eyes, mouth and nose are likely to occur in a disease of droplets
which is generated by a sneeze, cough of an infected person or during
any procedures generated by aerosol in a clinical setting. Under such
circumstances, face shields and goggles are su pposed to be very
effective. Inadvertent touching of the eyes, nose or mouth with a
contaminated hand may lead to transmission of infection. Face shields
and goggles serve to be an integral component that can promote
standard precautions from contact (Dire ctorate General of Health
Services 2022) . The flexible frame in goggles provides a good sealing
with the skin of the facial area, thus covering the eyes as well as the
surrounding areas while accommodating the power glasses in nurses
Diff erent types of masks, such as N -95 masks and triple -layered medical
masks, are very effective in providing protection against inhalation of
the virus through the respiratory tract. The Covid -19 virus mostly
affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts, a nd thus protecting the
same is absolutely mandatory for nurses. The different types of
respiratory masks prevent the airway passage from the particulate
matter, which are generated by droplets as well as aerosols and thereby
preventing infection (Directora te General of Health Services 2022) . The
triple -layered medical masks are resistant to fluids and protect the
wearer, that is, the nurse, from droplets of infectious substances while
sneezing, coughing and talking. On the other hand, the N -95 mask has a
high capacity of filtration that resists airborne infectious particles. N -95
masks are designed in a manner so that they can achieve a close fit in
the face and thereby provides the requisite air seal to the wearer
(Udwadia and Raju 2020 ). N -95 masks have hi gh resistance to fluids.
The expiratory valve present in these masks does not collapse against
Transmission of infections occurs when a person touches any
contaminated surface and then touches his own eyes, nose or mouth.
Hand gloves are effective protection equipment or tools which will
potentially prevent the transmission of the virus. Nitrile glo ves are the
best suited for this purpose over gloves of latex as they are resistant to
chemicals and some disinfectants such as chlorine. Nurses have often
reported some extent of allergies to latex and have complained of
developing allergic dermatitis (Di rectorate General of Health Services
2022) . It is also recommended to use powdered gloves before wearing
them, which prevents perspiration and allergic infections. Shoe covers
and headcovers are also effective protection tools that are made up of
impermeab le fabric to facilitate decontamination and protection.
Coverall gowns are perfectly designed to provide protection to the torso
of nurses from being exposed to the virus. These coverall gowns provide
360 -degree protection as they are designed for coverin g the whole body.
This is effective over the medical gowns, which do not provide overall
protection to the body. Coveralls and gowns are highly acceptable by
nurses as there is a lack of evidence to support the efficiency of any
other similar material. The se gowns are considered to be easy to wear
and remove ( Coles et al. 2020 ). This equipment has stringent standards
which extend the prevention of exposure to solid particles that are
contaminated for protection from chemical hazards.
It can be concluded from the essay that Covid -19 infection has posed a
huge toll on the physical and mental health of the workers resulting in a
crisis in the healthcare workforce in terms of a shortage of nurses. Such
crisis calls for health protection equipmen t to be given to nurses in
abundance so that they can be protected effectively against infection.
The immediate and long -term effects of this pandemic outbreak on the
health of nurses have been discussed in terms of stress, anxiety and
depression. It has a lso been stated that many nurses are suffering from
skin diseases in the long term due to prolonged usage of PPEs. A few
measures to ensure the prevention of infection have been discussed to
help nurses prevent infection among themselves. Lastly, through t he
evaluation and application of health protection tools, it has been
discussed that these substances, if used, can effectively act as barriers to
Almeida, I.M.D., 2020. Health protection for healthcare workers in COVID -19 times and responses to the pandemic. Revista Brasileira de SaÃºde Ocupacional , 45 .
American Nurses Association. (2020). Nurses, ethics and the response to the COVID -19 pandemic. Available at: nurses â€ethics â€and â€the â€response â€toâ€the â€covid â€19 â€
pandemic. pdf accessed , 13 .
Barratt, C., 2018. Developing resilience: the role of nurses, healthcare teams and organisations. Nursing Standard , 33 (7), pp.43 -49.
Buheji, M. and Buhaid, N., 2020. Nursing human factor during COVID -19 pandemic. Int J Nurs Sci , 10 (1), pp.12 -24.
Coles, B., Burton, C., Khunti, K., Greenhalgh, T., Chan, X.H. and Ross, L., 2020. What is the effectiveness of protective gow ns and aprons against COVID -19 in
primary care settings?.
Davidson, P.M. and Szanton, S.L., 2020. Nu rsing homes and COVID â€19: We can and should do better. Journal of clinical nursing .
De Kock, J.H., Latham, H.A., Leslie, S.J., Grindle, M., Munoz, S.A., Ellis, L., Polson, R. and Oâ€™Malley, C.M., 2021. A rapid review of the impact of COVID -19 on the
mental health of healthcare workers: implications for supporting psychological well -being. BMC public health , 21 (1), pp.1 -18.
Directorate General of Health Services, 2022. Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID -19): Guidelines on rational use of Personal Protectiv e Equipment . 1st ed.
[ebook] Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, pp.2 -4. Available at:
[Accessed 29 April 2022].
Etgu, F. and Onder, S., 2021. Skin problems related to personal protective equipment among healthcare workers during the COVID -19 pandemic (online
research). Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology , 40 (3), pp.207 -213.
GonzÃ¡lez -Gil, M.T., GonzÃ¡lez -BlÃ¡zquez, C., Parro -Moreno, A.I., Pedraz -Marcos, A., Palmar -Santos, A ., Otero -GarcÃa, L., Navarta -SÃ¡nchez, M.V., Alcolea -CosÃn, M.T.,
ArgÃ¼ello -LÃ³pez, M.T., Canalejas -PÃ©rez, C. and Carrillo -Camacho, M.E., 2021. Nursesâ€™ perceptions and demands regarding COVID -19 care delivery in critical care
units and hospital emergency serv ices. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing , 62 , p.102966.
Hamnerius, N., PontÃ©n, A., Bergendorff, O., Bruze, M., BjÃ¶rk, J. and Svedman, C., 2021. Skin Exposures, Hand Eczema and Facia l Skin Disease in Healthcare Workers
During the COVID -19 Pandemic: A Cross -sectional Study. Acta dermato -venereologica , 101 (9), pp.adv00543 -adv00543.
Hannemann, J., Abdalrahman, A., Erim, Y., Morawa, E., Jerg -Bretzke, L., Beschoner, P., Geiser, F., Hiebel, N., Weidner, K., Steudte -Schmiedgen, S. and Albus, C., 2022.
The imp act of the COVID -19 pandemic on the mental health of medical staff considering the interplay of pandemic burden and psychosocial resources â€”A rapid
systematic review. PloS one , 17 (2), p.e0264290.
Huang, L., Lin, G., Tang, L., Yu, L. and Zhou, Z., 2020. Spec ial attention to nursesâ€™ protection during the COVID -19 epidemic. Critical care , 24 (1), pp.1 -3.
Kim, S.C., Quiban, C., Sloan, C. and Montejano, A., 2021. Predictors of poor mental health among nurses during COVID â€19 pandemic. Nursing Open , 8(2), pp.900 –
KÄ±sacÄ±k, Ã–.G. and Ã–zyÃ¼rek, P., 2022. Skin -related problems associated with the use of personal protective equipment among health care workers during the
COVID -19 pandemic: A online survey study. Journal of Tissue Viability .
Liu, Y., Long, Y., Cheng, Y., Guo, Q., Yang, L., Lin, Y., Cao, Y., Ye, L., Jiang, Y., Li, K. and Tian, K., 2020. Psychological impact of the COVID -19 outbreak on nurses in
China: a nationwide survey during the outbreak. Frontiers in psychiatry , p.1353.
Purba, A.K., 2020. How should the role of the nurse change in response to covid -19?. Nursing times , 116 (6), pp.25 -28.
Razu, S.R., Yasmin, T., Arif, T.B., Islam, M., Islam, S.M.S., Gesesew, H.A. and Ward, P., 2021. Challenges faced by healthcar e professionals during the COVID -19
pandemic: a qualitative inquiry from Bangladesh. Frontiers in public health , p.1024.
Sampaio, F., Sequeira, C. and Teixeira, L., 2021. Impact of COVID -19 outbreak on nursesâ€™ mental health: A prospective cohort study. Environmental research , 194 ,
Torales, J., Oâ€™Higgins, M., Castaldelli -Maia, J.M. and Ventriglio, A., 2020. The outbreak of COVID -19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental
health. International journal of social psychiatry , 66 (4), pp.317 -320.
Turale, S., Meechamnan, C. and Kunaviktikul, W., 2020. Challenging times: ethics, nursing and the COVID â€19 pandemic. International nursing review , 67 (2),
Udwadia, Z.F. and Raju, R.S., 2020. The N -95 mask: invaluable ally in the battle against the COVID -19 pandemic. Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest
Society , 37 (4), p.323.
Vejdani, M., Foji, S., Jamili, S., Salehabadi, R., Adel, A., Ebnehoseini, Z., Aval, S.B., Anjidani, A.A. and Ebrahimipour, H. , 2021. Challenges faced by nurses while caring
for COVID -19 patients: A qualitative study. Journal of Education and Health Promotion , 10 .
Yuan, X., Xi, H., Le, Y., Xu, H., Wang, J., Meng, X. and Yang, Y., 2021. Online survey on healthcare skin reactions for weari ng medical -grade protective equipment
against COVID -19 in Hubei Province, Chi na. PloS one , 16 (4), p.e0250869.
Zhou, N.Y., Yang, L., Dong, L.Y., Li, Y., An, X.J., Yang, J., Yang, L., Huang, C.Z. and Tao, J., 2020. Prevention and treatme nt of skin damage caused by personal
protective equipment: Experience of the first -line clinicians treating SARS -CoV -2 infection. International Journal of Dermatology and Venereology , 3(02), pp.70 -75.
- Assignment status: Already Solved By Our Experts
- (USA, AUS, UK & CA PhD. Writers)
- CLICK HERE TO GET A PROFESSIONAL WRITER TO WORK ON THIS PAPER AND OTHER SIMILAR PAPERS, GET A NON PLAGIARIZED PAPER FROM OUR EXPERTS