IMED661 Endocrinology:Specific Molecular Components of The Somatotropic

IMED661 Endocrinology:Specific Molecular Components of The Somatotropic

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IMED661 Endocrinology

Questions:     

1) The transcription factor Pit-1 underlies how growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) regulates the function of somatotrophs. How? 

2) If you were to engineer a vertebrate that exhibited slowed, or attenuated, post-natal somatic growth, how would you go about it? More specifically, please describe three specific molecular components of the somatotropic axis that you would target and why you chose them.

3) Arnold Berthold (1849) is often credited with conducting the first endocrine experiment. Briefly describe/outline the key observations that Bertold made that established his study as an endocrine experiment. 

4) The first identified hormone was named __________________ by __________________and 

    ___________________. 

5) Provide an example of a peptide hormone: _______________ 

6) Provide an example of an amine-derived hormone: ____________________ What specific amino acid forms the basis of its basic structure? 

7) The _______________________ domain of a peptide hormone receptor is where hydrophobic 

alpha helices are routinely found. (1 point)

8) Growth hormone and prolactin receptors require kinases to activate downstream signaling. So do tyrosine kinase receptors (example: insulin receptor), but how are they different? 

9) Why don’t cortisol and aldosterone even though they are both steroids elicit the same biological effects at the molecular level within a target cell? Provide examples of specific activities that these two hormones elicit that must be kept distinct. 

10) If a given tissue highly expresses deiodinase 2 (Dio2), what are some predictions you might make about how thyroid hormone signaling works in that tissue? 

11) How does ACTH regulate cortisol output from the adrenal glands? A complete answer will include sub-cellular aspects of cortisol synthesis. 

12) Use the diagram below to complete the following statements. 

The site of thyrotropin-releasing hormone release is:    ______________

The site of vasopressin production is:    ______________

The site of oxytocin release is:    ______________

The site of prolactin production is: ______________

The site of prolactin release is:    ______________

 13) Within the context of blood volume regulation, what is a major action of vasopressin? 

14) Describe an example of how one hormone can permit another hormone, or neurohormone, to exert a specific activity. Be sure to describe the specific activity that is permitted to occur.  

15) Describe features of a given cell that indicate it may be specialized to synthesize and secrete steroids. 

16) How does TSH regulate thyroid hormone synthesis? Provide at least three examples. 

    

17) Describe a cell population that resides within both Rathke’s pouch and the “mature” pituitary that plays a role in meeting the needs of a given organism to produce pituitary factor(s) during a particular life stage. 

18) Predict the patterns of plasma TSH levels in patients with Grave’s Disease. Why are they like this? 

19) What key macromolecule links thyroid hormones with thermogenesis? Where is this macromolecule expressed (tissue and cellular organelle)? 

20) Use specific examples from the study on tadpole stress physiology to briefly describe what is meant by primary, secondary, and tertiary stress responses. 

21) How do aldosterone and anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) interact to support blood pressure regulation? 

22) Describe the physiology of renin. Include in your description where it is produced, why it is secreted, what it does once secreted, and how this all contributes to a homeostatic control system. 

23) It is not uncommon for two individuals (whether they are people or animals) to exhibit glucocorticoid stress responses with varying degrees of magnitude. In other words, exposure to an identical stressor will result in different levels of plasma cortisol. By describing specific molecular and cellular aspects of the adrenal axis, propose three mechanistic explanations for why the nature of a glucocorticoid stress response may differ between individuals. 

IMED661 Endocrinology

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