Health Issues In Global HCR4001

Health Issues In Global HCR4001

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SOCIAL, POLITICAL &
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN
INTERNATIONAL HEALTH CARE
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SOCIAL, POLITICAL &
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN
INTERNATIONAL HEALTH CARE
Student Name
Student Details
University Details
1
Table of Contents
Task 1. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 2
Task 2. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 5
Task 3. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 9
References ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 11
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Task 1.
COPD is a chronic lung disease that has been standing for Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease which will cause the obstructed airflow from the lungs (Zhao et al., 2020) . COPD is
cause d because of long -term exposure to different types of gases which will create a negative
impact on the health of an individual. The disease of COPD has different types of symptoms
that will create a negative impact on the lungs of an individual whereof the primary symptom
of the disease are as follows –
ï‚· Facing diffi culty in the proces s of breathing.
ï‚· Cough (Miravitlles and Ribera, 2017) .
ï‚· Mucus and Sputum production.
ï‚· Wheezing.
ï‚· Shortness of breath.
ï‚· Problem un deep breathing.
Inhaling polluted air from the environment is one of the major causes behind the issue of
COPD where according to research one of the primary reasons for the disease is an excessive
amount of smoking through which 9 out of 10 cases are registered because of smoking.
Currently, more than 65 million people have been dealing with the issue of COPD and the
rate has been increasing constantly where according to medical research COPD mainly
target s people more than the age of 40 and those people who smoke regularly (Sullivan,
2020) .
The risk of COPD will also increase the risk of other health issues such as lung cancer, heart
disease, and another kind of health conditions (Morgan, Zakeri, and Quint, 2018) . The health
condition in the disease is combined with two different health condition Emphysema and
Bronchitis that has a large amount of contribution to the formulation of the disease.
Emphysema destroys fragile walls and impairing with airflow from the lungs whereas
bronchitis is a condition in which the bronchial tube is become inflamed producing more
mucus which wil l create a negative impact on the lungs of an individual.
The people who are dealing with the disease of Asthana have a wide range of risk of the
disease COPD where the issue is due to deficiency in blood component s (Gibson and
McDonald, 2015) . The primar y key risk factors which have been associate d with the disease
COPD are as follows –
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ï‚· Exposure to air pollution .
ï‚· Passive smoking and tobacco .
ï‚· Working in an environment where the impact of chemicals, dust, and other pollutants
is objective will create a negative impact on the health of an individual.
ï‚· Genetic history.
ï‚· Respiratory infection.
ï‚· Risk of other diseases such as heart failure, lung disease, breathing issues, and many
more.
The risk of disease COPD has been reduced by following the different types of key
precautions which have been as follows –
ï‚· Stop and quit smoking (Tennesen, 2013) .
ï‚· Inhale fresh air.
ï‚· Proper risk and regular exercise.
ï‚· Medications.
ï‚· Avoid infection.
The aetiology of the disease is related to the exposure t o the irritants which will create a
negative impact on the lungs of an individual and block the airways through which an
individual will exhale or inhale the oxygen (Williams et al., 20108) . The most common
etiology of the disease is active and passive smo king which is the primary reason behind the
occurrence of the disease whereas harmful chemicals will also primarily reason for the
disease COPD. The etiology of a disease is combined with different types of complications
such as follows –
ï‚· Respiratory functi ons – People who are dealing with the issue of COPD have more
risk to infected with other diseases such as pneumonia, cold, and many more. It will
also create a negative impact on lung tissues by damaging them.
ï‚· Heart problem and lung cancer – The disease COPD will increase the risk of heart
problems such as heart attack.
ï‚· Depression – It mainly creates a negative impact on the breathing capabilities of an
individual which will affect the other body functions of an individual and increase the
risk of depression in an individual (Yohannes and Alexopoulos, 2014) .
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The diagnosis of the disease COPD is a long -term process where the most common test for
the disease COPD is Spirometry which has been conducted for assessing the efficiency of the
lungs of a person and how effectively it is working. A spirometry test is conducted by
blowing a person into a large tube that has been connected through a machine for measuring
how effectively the lung will hold and blow the flow of air. Other tests have been condu cted
for diagnosing the disease such as a walk test, pulse oximetry test, diffusing capacity test, and
many more. The diagnosis process of the disease has been identified through different types
of tests such as chest X -rays, CT scans, and lung function te sts (Radiologyinfo, 2022) .
The treatment of the disease COPD is developed variously within the period where the
primary recommended treatments for the disease are as follows –
ï‚· One of the most effective treatments for the prevention of the disease is therapies such
as pulmonary rehabilitation and oxygen therapy for the specialized training program.
ï‚· Quitting smoking and fresh air.
ï‚· Various medications will provide treatment for the disease such as bronchodilators,
steroids, o ral steroids, antibiotics, and theophylline (Devereux et al., 2018) .
ï‚· The final stage of treatment is lung volume reduction and lung transplant surgery
which will help in curing the disease.
Currently, there is no fully cured treatment for the disease but t he implication of the above –
discussed treatment will help a person th rough slow progress from the symptoms of the
disease (Nhs, 2022) . According to many types of research quitting smoking and following
healthy life is the most important thing that a person will do.
The effective management of the disease is defined by identifying the disease in the initial
time with appropriate pharmacotherapy considering both prevention and symptom
management. The effective management process for the organization is to regular follow -up
and progression of the disease and manage them effectively .
COPD symptom is progressively prevented with the implementation of the ability of the
patients with functioning normally where the disease COPD is divided into four stages which
are as follows –
ï‚· Mild – The primary symptom in stage one is s hortness of breath (Khatri, 2021) .
ï‚· Moderate – The symptoms of symptom are intensity at airflow limitation progress.
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ï‚· Severe – In the third stage lung function has increased and frequently the disease has
been decreased continuously.
ï‚· Very severe – Stage four is related to breathing and chest tig htness where the disease
gets uncontrolled.
Task 2.
1.
In the current scenario, COPD is increasing as a global disease very rapidly which will create
a negative impact across the world wherein relation to this the increasing rate of COPD in the
year 2019 is 10.3% (Pelc, 2022) . The chronic disease will also create a negative impact on
the develope d countries which also creates an impact in the UK. In the UK, COPD is a big
disease where almost more than 2 million are dealing with the issue of COPD on which they
have facing different types of stages of the disease. One of the most dangerous impacts o n the
origin of the UK is that out of 3 million people more than 2 million people are undiagnosed.
The study conducted by the NHS department of the UK finds that in the year 2020/21 more
than 1.17 million people have been diagnosed with the disease in a ye ar (Kulakiewicz, et al.,
2021) . The UK has a positive approach towards the prevention of the disease where various
factors will create an impact on the approach of the country towards the disease which is as
follows –
The primary issue is related to the implementation of following the international standards set
by international health authorities where about this UK, fights disease by following
international standards set by the world health organization (WHO) .
Econom ic issues are related to delivering budget and resources for fighting the disease which
will assist in managing the disease. The UK health has a positive approach to dealing with the
issue where the national health system of the country spends more than £8 00 million to
prevent the disease. It cost the health department nearly two times in comparison with COPD
mild disease.
The environmental issues will also create a negative impact on the treatment of the disease
COPD is directly affected by air pollution a nd according to a survey in the origin of UK, air
pollution is one of the major issues for the health (Iqair, 2017) . The political willingness is
very positive towards the disease where govt, supports new implementation for the
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prevention of the disease. The UK govt. launches modern treatment Roflumilast which will
provide treatment to adult people whose symptoms are wo rsening. The primary treatment
which has been provided in the UK is short -acting bronchodilator inhalers where the health
system in the UK designs and develops separate self -management plans for their citizens to
manage COPD which has been reviewed by doct ors and nurses with preventing the regular
check -up by nurses . The healthcare system of the UK has been prevented with two types of
anti -biotics such as beta 2 agonist inhalers . The national health system in the UK is working
on prioritizing the optimizati on of the disease which is as follows –
ï‚· Multidisciplinary support for the early detection of the disease with a supportive care
approach (England.NHS. the UK, 2022) .
ï‚· Signposting and care navigation.
ï‚· Psychological and physical su pport to the patients.
ï‚· Self -management plan for the patients.
The PHE policy in the UK from 2020 to 2025 defines the rules and regulations for the
prevention of the disease where the govt. and the health system of the country will provide
concession in th e treatment of the disease with protecting the mental health of the individuals.
The policies defined by the local govt. with defining the GOLD guidelines for smoking
cessation, flu, and pneumococcal vaccination for the patient -facing the disease.
2.
COPD is a global issue across the world where it is increasing continuously with its various
dimensions where currently more than 65 million people are dealing with the moderate and
severe frequency of COPD where the medical expert will predict the risk of the disease over
the next 50 years (Sullivan, 2020) . The disease will create a negative impact on both
developed and developing countries where the approach of the heath management system
will define how effectively the disea se will be measured.
The UK is a developed country where the disease will create a negative impact but the
support system of the country supports the prevention of the disease where the digital data
provided by the national health system in the country sho ws that in the year 2020/21 more
than 1.7 million people have been diagnosed with the disease approximately 1.9% of the total
population. The govt. categorized COPD under the health law of the country (Rayner et al.,
2017) . The etiology of the disease in t he origin of the UK is mainly because currently, the
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UK is one of the most polluted countries where air pollution is a major issue. The prevalence
of the disease in the UK defines the overview of the disease where it creates an impact on
more than 3 millio n people and the prevalence of the disease is more increased in the people
aged above 50. The geographical variations also define the prevention of the disease where it
creates a more negative impact on urban and industrialized where the pollution level is high.
The health system in the UK separately defines the budget for the disease COPD which is
around £ 800 million which will provide an advantage to the healthcare system of the countr y
to fight the disease (Assets.publishing.service.gov.uk, 2022) . The diagnosis process of the
disease is measured through the systematic approach with spirometry and x -ray finding where
the healthcare provider in the c ountry will conduct a CT scan for the disease. The disease
mainly targets women between the age of 65 to 74 years with the primary symptom of
shortness of breath.
Malaysia is a developed country where COPD is increasing constantly where the primary
reason behind the high prevalence of the disease is the smoking habits of the adult
population. Various health research founds that smoking is the primary reason behind the
disease. The disease will create an extra burden on the health system of the country whic h is
around $673 million. The rate of disease in Malaysi a is increased by a rate of 4.7%. The
healthcare system of the country is not much developed and the resources are not effective to
deal with the issue. The treatment and diagnosis process is mainly based on three factors
which are as follows –
ï‚· Early diagnosis of the disease.
ï‚· Improving dyspnoea.
ï‚· Preventing mapping exa cerbations.
The primary difference between the approach of both countries is that the UK has a wide
range of resources in comparison to Malaysia and the health policy of Malaysia does not
include treatment of COPD under their health policy which is combined with the p rivate
healthcare system.
3.
The global prevalence of the disease is estimated at 10.3% in the year 2019 so worldwide
COPD is a global issue because of the high prevalence of the disease, morbidity, and
mortality rate of the disease which will create formi dable change in the healthcare system
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(Adeloye et al., 2022) . Currently, COPD is the third leading disease which is a cause of death
worldwide. Various organizations will work on the disease and its negative impacts such as
COPD, WHO, and the Global Initia tive for COPD where out of the WHO is the primary
organization. Both other organizations are also working under the WHO which has a positive
approach to the prevention of the disease. The primary strength of WHO for the disease is
that organization develops an action plan for the disease under the NCD act for the United
nation agenda for sustainability development. The global strategy and initiatives of WHO
combined with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) where
the orga nization is a non -profit organization which has been established by WHO and the US
national heart lung in the year 1997 for developing awareness of the disease (Goldcopd.org,
2022) .
The rehabilitation practice is a strategic app roach for the prevention of the disease where
WHO also create general awareness to quit smoking under their programs. WHO also
incorporates for prevention of the disease with the Global Alliance against chronic respiratory
disease through voluntary allianc e. The primary strength of WHO toward the disease is that
prevention activities include a Household energy solution toolkit for promoting the clean and
safe intervention for the disease. WHO organizes professional camps for the prevention of the
disease supporting with healthcare team such as follows –
ï‚· Health care physician.
ï‚· Pulmonologist.
ï‚· Counseling and therapy.
ï‚· Palliative care specialist.
WHO defines a clear policy for the prevention of the disease by defining the GOLD
standards under which the treatmen t of the disease is spirometry with identifying the accurate
and repeatable measurement of the lung disease. The primary strength of the world health
organization is that that organization has a wide range of resources for t he prevention of the
disease and the WHO implements modern treatment for the disease such as corticosteroid
therapy (Calverley et al., 2017) . The programs for the disease are related to improving the
noncommunicable disease intervention. The primary strength of the policy is that it is a new
strategic approach to the strength of healthcare service. The strategic approach is related to
chronic respiratory disease through voluntary programs committed to the vision to prevent
the disease.
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One of the major weaknesses of WHO in preventing t he disease is that WHO is not able to
find a complete cure for the disease where through the implication of current treatment the
disease the risk will be reduced but it cannot be 100% treatable disease. Another issue in
front of the WHO is the inadequate health structure of the countries where developed
countries will prevent the disease with their resources but developing and backward countries
are failed in the effective treatment of the disease.
Task 3.
Reflection
My learnings from the study are that chronic disease can be prevented through the
implication of an effective managerial approach where the national and international
organizations will provide suppor ting the prevention of the disease more effectively nu the
primary recommendation is fo r the patients is to follow a healthy life style for access of
quality healthcare services.
According to me, a responsible person is an individual who is a part of an emerging
sustainable community where the actions taken by the individual will support the values and
practice s of the community. I think that the responsibility of a global citizen is that respect
the different elements of the society by following the rules and regulation which has been
implemented by the society. It is a n approach for the man aging the societal issues effectively
where according to me the concept of responsibility as global citizenship in the field of
healthcare is related and categorized into three areas which are as follows –
ï‚· My awareness of global issues.
ï‚· Responsibility towar ds the society.
ï‚· Civically engaged.
I think that the implication of health service is not individually related to me but it is also
related to the implication of the responsibility towards the society. According to me the
prevention of responsibility with h elping to break the vicious cycle of the health crisis and
impoverishment. According to me, the concept of equality in the healthcare sector is related
to the fair treatment of healthcare disease services without facing any discrimination from
any person so the healthcare services can be easily available for people from different groups.
The process of fair treatment is also related to supporting those people who are not able to
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access the treatment of their disease because they cannot afford the expenses of the treatment
of the disease.
I think that the concept of healthcare acc essibility of different types of healthcare services has
been related to the prevention and complete diagnosis of the disease where the complete
treatment for the disease will help in impacting the condition more effectively. It is related to
providing qua lity healthcare service accessible to people from different backgrounds for
achieving the best possible health outcome. The disease has been prevented by managing the
health condition of an individual . I think that it is very important to provide equal
opp ortunities so the global health level index has increased. According to me the
effectiveness of the intervention in real practice is related to the best practical intervention of
the healthcare services in the real practice setting. The best healthcare pra ctice is related to
managing the different types of interventions and effective implementation of the modern
implication so the healthcare service has been improved the different aspects of the society so
the world will be developed into a healthy place .
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