Clinical Manifestations and Complications- 91529

Clinical Manifestations  and  Complications- 91529

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Know Stroke!
Clinical Diagnosis of Stroke Clinical Man …

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R ESEA R C H POSTER PR ESEN TA TION TEMPLA TE © 2019
w ww.PosterPr esentations.com
Know Stroke!
Clinical Diagnosis of Stroke Clinical Manifestations and C omplications Aetiology and Pathophysiology
Non – pharmacologic Management of
Stroke
Pharmacotherapy
A stroke is any damage to the brain or spinal cord
caused by a problem with the blood flow (Kuriakose &
Xiao, 2020). Stroke comes about when part of the brain
stops getting blood. Blood cannot give your brain cells
the nutrients and oxygen they need, so they begin to die
within a few minutes. This can lead to permanent
damage to the brain, lengthy disability, or even death.
Stroke comes in two forms:
ï‚· Ischaemic stroke results from a blood clot stuck in a
brain blood vessel and stopped it from getting blood.
This makes up about 80% of strokes, making it the
most common type.
ï‚· Hemorrhagic stroke results from bleeding into the
brain because a blood vessel breaks.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is another condition that
is like a stroke. Some people call this a “mini -stroke.”
TIAs happen when the brain does not get enough blood
for a short time. Damage to brain cells is not permanent,
but having a TIA makes you much more likely to stroke.
These factors increase your chances of getting strokes:
ï‚· High blood pressure is the leading risk factor
ï‚· Diabetes
ï‚· Heart diseases
ï‚· Older age
ï‚· A family history of the condition
ï‚· Age
ï‚· Smoking
ï‚· Being of African descent
ï‚· Being obese
ï‚· Not having enough exercise
Epidemiology of Stroke
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the third
most common cause of death and disability ( Feigin et al.,
2022). The estimated cost of stroke around the world is more
than US$721 billion. Most of the people who have strokes live
in low -income and low -middle -income countries.
Over 38,000 people are affected by stroke every year. More
than 387,000 Australians have had a stroke at one point. The
total burden of disease decreased by 41% between 2013 -2015.
Women are more likely to be killed by a stroke. Stroke is more
common in males than females and more common in the older
population.
Clinical Manifestations
Most of the time, the signs of a stroke happen quickly.
Among them are:
ï‚· Face, arm, or leg goes numb or gets weak (more so
on one side of the body)
ï‚· Seeing problems in one or both eyes
ï‚· A lousy headache without a well -known cause
ï‚· Having difficulties with walking, dizziness, or losing
your sense of balance or control
ï‚· Confusion, problems with grasping speech or an
inability to speak
These symptoms are usually abrupt in onset. Even
though these symptoms can happen independently, they
typically occur together.
Complications of Stroke
Complications arising poststroke deprive patients of
disability -free years. The more the difficulties, the more
the years lived with disability. Some of these
Complications include:
ï‚· Falls
ï‚· Chest infections
ï‚· Infection of the urinary tract
ï‚· Major depressive disorder
ï‚· Pressure sores
ï‚· Pulmonary embolism
ï‚· Deep venous thrombosis
ï‚· Shoulder pain
The types of stroke
Imaging
ï‚· CT brain imaging is needed to rule out subarachnoid
hemorrhage or brain masses that can present as a stroke and
possibly confirm a stroke diagnosis.
ï‚· MRI gives a lot of structural information and can also show
early signs of brain swelling.
ï‚· A carotid duplex scan can also determine if the stroke is
carotid in origin.
Laboratory Studies
Before decisions are made about fibrinolysis, it is not
always necessary to do a lot of tests in the lab. Testing is
often limited to blood sugar and coagulation studies if the
patient is taking warfarin, heparin, or any other anti -clotting
drug. Baseline tests like a complete blood count (CBC) and
a basic chemistry panel can be helpful. All women of
childbearing age who have signs of a stroke should get a
pregnancy test conducted.
MRI Scan showing stroke (Medscape, 2020)
The use of drugs to treat a stroke can be split into two
parts: treating the stroke itself and preventing strokes.
W hether a stroke is ischemic or hemorrhagic affects the
medicines used to treat it. Tissue plasminogen activator
(tPA) and, in certain situations, antiplatelet agents can be
used to treat a primary ischemic stroke. For a
hemorrhagic stroke, the goal of pharmacotherapy is to
control the patient’s blood pressure and intracranial
pressure.
Treatment of Ischaemic Stroke
Alteplase is the tissue plasminogen activator of choice
for ischaemic stroke.
Aspirin is antiplatelet of choice
Secondary Prevention
Ischemic stroke is treated in more ways than just fixing
the immediate problem. Secondary treatment aims to
stop the disease from coming back by controlling
metabolic risk factors like blood pressure and lipids. It
has been shown that lowering blood pressure can cut the
risk of stroke by 30 – 40%, but there is no clear evidence
that one class of antihypertensive drugs is better than
another. It has been shown that taking diuretics alone or
with an angiotensin -converting enzyme inhibitor is
helpful.
Ischemic stroke risk increases when low -density
lipoproteins and total cholesterol are high. Research
shows that statin therapy is the best way to prevent
ischemic strokes from happening again. Still, niacin,
fibrates, and cholesterol -absorption inhibitors can also be
used for people who cannot take statin therapy.
Treatment of Hemorrhagic Stroke
Even though the number of people who have a
hemorrhagic stroke is lower, they are more likely to die.
There are not many ways to treat a hemorrhagic stroke
with drugs. The cause of bleeding needs to be identified,
blood pressure put under control, any medicines that
could cause more bleeding need to be stopped, and the
intracranial pressure kept under control.
Most of the time, non -drug ways of preventing strokes
are ignored and seen as less critical than drug -based
ways. W hether you are taking pharmacotherapy to avoid
a stroke or not, your non -drug stroke prevention should
stay the same. A healthy lifestyle, which includes a
healthy diet, regular physical activity, a low -normal body
mass index, not smoking, and drinking alcohol in
moderation, is the most important thing for preventing
stroke without drugs.
Rehabilitation is significant non -pharmacologic
management and aims to restore some of the lost
functions due to the effect of stroke. The approaches
include occupational therapy, speech therapy and
physiotherapy. The patient stays at the hospital until
some of these functions are restored.
References
Feigin , V. L., Brainin , M., Norrving , B., Martins, S., Sacco, R. L., Hacke ,
W., Fisher, M., Pandian, J., & Lindsay, P. (2022). World Stroke
Organization (WSO): Global Stroke Fact Sheet 2022. International Journal
of Stroke , 17 (1), 18 – 29. https://doi.org/10.1177/17474930211065917
Kuriakose, D., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Pathophysiology and Treatment of
Stroke: Present Status and Future Perspectives. International Journal of
Molecular Sci ences , 21 (20), 7609. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207609
Medscape. (2020, May 27). Ischemic Stroke Workup: Approach
Considerations, Brain Imaging Wi th CT Scanning and MRI, Other Imaging
Studies i n Ischemic Stroke . Emedicine.medscape.com.
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1916852 -workup#c8

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