Case Study Answers of Normal Biological Processes

Case Study Answers of Normal Biological Processes

NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
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Due Monday 9 May 2022, 23:59 (midnight)
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NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
Do NOT delete any part of the template
Due Monday 9 May 2022, 23:59 (midnight)
Student Name:
Student ID:
Note: Please see Learning Guide for questions and additional instructions.
All answers must be in complete sentences and include in -text references as
evidence for the source of your knowledge.
Insert your answers below. Do not write the question .
Q1a.
An individual’s age, sex, and degree of activity all play a role in determining a
person’s average body temperature. 98.6°F (37°C) is considered a typical body
temperature for an adult. However, everyone’s temperature is unique and can be slightly
higher or lower. When taken orally, adult body temperatures can range from 97.6 to
99.6 degrees Fahrenheit. When taken orally, a typical temperature for ch ildren ages 3 –
10 is 95.9 –99.5°F. Infants have a normal body temperature range of 97.9 –100.4°F when
tested rectally. When a baby is teething, it’s normal for their body temperature to rise
slightly.
The body’s temperature is set within a small range to func tion effectively.
Enzymes in cells need the right temperature to catalyze chemical processes (Peate &
Nair, 2017). Like many chemical reactions, biochemical reactions occur inside living
organisms and are heavily impacted by BT. The human body is homeother mic,
regulating its temperature to coordinate metabolic activity. BT is the mean thermal
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
energy created by metabolism in the human body. Standard BT (normothermia) is
required for normal biological processes. Hyperthermia (too hot) or hypothermia (too
cold ) can change metabolic activity, disrupt biological function, and cause tissue
damage. Slight alterations can have significant effects on physiological processes.
Increased BT reduces mental and physical performance, while a low BT might confuse
or, in ext reme situations, circulatory collapse.
Q1b.
Maintaining a steady temperature allows live creatures to continue their
metabolism. Nervous feedback processes govern the body’s temperature almost entirely,
and practically all of these mechanisms function thr ough temperature regulating centres
in the hypothalamus. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by thermoregulation.
When the body’s core temperature drops, systems that aid save heat and enhance
its production function as a negative feedback that brings the temperature back to
normal. The preoptic portion of the hypothalamus receives input from peripheral and
central thermoreceptors, which activates the heat promoting centre. The anterior
pituitary gland secretes thyroid -stimulating hormone in response to thyroid -releasing
hormone (TRH), which is released by the hypothalamus (TSH). Hypothalamic and TSH
action potentials activate various effectors, which raise the core temperature to a
standard level.
Vasoconstriction – Heat -promoting center action potentia ls excite sympathetic
neurons, causing vessels in the skin to contract. Vasoconstriction reduces warm blood
flow, allowing heat to be transferred from internal organs to the skin.
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released. Hormones cause a rise in cellu lar
metabolism, leading to increased heat generation.
Shivering occurs when the blood temperature is too low to stimulate piloerectile
tissue, resulting in piloerection and shivering. Brain parts are stimulated to increase the
tone of muscles and cause hea t production. The agonist increases its muscular tone in
the stretch reflex while the antagonist’s muscle spindles become stretched by tiny
contractions.
Q2.
Whenever blood calcium levels are low, parathyroid glands release parathyroid
hormone (PTH). Cal cium levels in the bones, the kidneys, and the intestines are
increased due to this treatment (Peate & Nair, 2017). Osteoclasts, cells that cause the
bone to be reabsorbed, are activated by PTH, which causes calcium to be released from
bone into the bloods tream. Reduced calcium deposition in bone is also a side effect of
PTH, which inhibits osteoblasts. In the intestines, PTH increases dietary calcium
absorption, and in the kidneys, it increases calcium reabsorption, which contributes to
bone health . While PTH directly affects the kidneys, its effects on the intestine are
mediated by calcium reabsorption in the intestine. Calcium absorption is boosted by the
action of calcitriol on the intestines. PTH release is stifled by an increase in calcium
levels in th e bloodstream.
Q3.
In contrast to external respiration, internal respiration occurs in the metabolizing
tissues across the respiratory membrane, whereas external respiration occurs within the
lungs across the respiratory membrane (Peate & Nair, 2017). During external
respiration, gases are exchange d between the lung’s alveoli and the external
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
environment. Exchanging gases with the internal environment is the primary function of
internal respiration in tissues . Internal respiration occurs b etween the blood and body
tissues. Carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs , and oxygen is absorbed from the
blood in external respiration.
When the body is internally respiring, oxygen diffuses from the blood to the
tissues, and during external respiration, oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into the
tissues. During internal respiration, the blood pressure drops to 40 from 100 mmHg;
however, the blood pressure rises to 100 from 40 mmHg during external respiration.
During internal breathing, the PC O2 in the blood increases to 45 from 40 mmHg, but
PCO2 decreases to 40 from 45 mmHg during external respiration . External respiration
correlates with both the internal and external environments, whereas internal respiration
only correlates with the interio r environment.
Metabolizing cells undergo this process in their respiratory membranes. As a
result of cellular respiration, the mitochondria generate ATP. The waste product of
cellular respiration is carbon dioxide. Blood must flow continuously to keep ce llular
functions balanced. The blood provides oxygen to the tissues through internal
respiration. Blood that is depleted of oxygen is delivered to the lungs for exhalation.
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the bloodstream. In both types of respiration , the
primary difference is where and how gas exchange occurs .
Q4a.
Cholesterol aids in hormone production since it is transformed into a steroid
hormone, which aids in physiological functioning. Cholesterol also aids digestion by
assisting in bile produc tion, which is utilized to digest fat (Marcel & Engelke, 2018).
They also serve as cell building blocks.
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
Q4b.
Both low -density and high -density lipoproteins help with cholesterol transport
throughout the body. Low -density lipoproteins are the ones that ma ke the most
cholesterol accessible in the body. High LDL cholesterol levels contribute to the
development of cardiovascular disease. In contrast, HDL cholesterol absorbs cholesterol
and is transported to the liver. Where it is then eliminated. When the bod y has high
amounts of HDL cholesterol, the risks of adverse cardiovascular events are lowered
(Marcel & Engelke, 2018).
Q4c.
Low -Fat Diets: You can meet these requirements by eating low -fat meats, fruits,
vegetables, low -fat milk, and 1% milk (Eilat -Adar et al., 2013). Low -Carbohydrate
Diets limit carbohydrate intake to 30 –130 grams daily or up to 45 per cent of calories.
Examples are meat, eggs, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs, seeds, and fruits.
Q5a.
Among the best sources of iron are lean meat and fish.
Q5b.
Hemoglobin transports oxygen to tissues from the lungs inside red cells and
needs iron to function properly. Iron aids muscle metabolism and maintains healthy
connective tissue as a constituent of the protein myoglobin (Marcel & Dixon, 2018).
For the body to grow and develop and for the brain and cells to work correctly, iron is
essential for producing certain hormones (National Institutes of Health, 2016).
Q5c. An iron deficiency most commonly causes anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is
associate d with gastrointestinal disorders, weakness, weariness, difficulties
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
concentrating, decreased cognitive function, immunological function, exercise or work
outcomes, and body temperature control (Stables, & Rankin, 2017). A lack of treatment
might lead to l earning impairments in children and newborns with IDA.
Q5d.
Pregnant women
Plasma volume and red blood cell mass grow dramatically during pregnancy due
to the mother’s increased production of red blood cells (Scanlon & Sanders, 2019). Iron
requirements rise throughout pregnancy due to this enlargement and meet the fetus’s and
placenta’s demands.
Children In Their Infancy And Childhood
Due to their quick growth, infants, especially those born preterm or with low
birth we ight or whose mothers have an iron shortage, are at risk for iron deficiency.
Those who suffer from menorrhagia, or abnormally copious menstrual flow, are
more likely to suffer from iron deficiency.
NURS1023 Bioscience 1 Assessment 2
References
Eilat -Adar, S., Sinai, T., Yosefy, C., & Henk in, Y. (2013). Nutritional
Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Nutrients , 5(9),
3646 –3683. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5093646
Marcel, C., & Dixon, S. (2018). Nursing Reference Center | Evi dence -Based Nursing
Resources | EBSCO . Ebscohost.com.
https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing -reference -center
Marcel, C., & Engelke, Z. (2018). Nursing Reference Center | Evidence -Based Nursing
Resources | EBSCO . Ebscohost.com.
https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing -reference -center
Marieb, E., & Hoehn, K. (201 8). Human Anatomy & Physiology (11th ed.). Pearson.
National Institutes of Health. (2016). Office of Dietary Supplements – Iron . Nih.gov.
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron -Heal thProfessional/
Peate, I., & Nair, M. (2017). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology: For nursing
and healthcare students . John Wiley & Sons.
Scanlon, V. C., & Sanders, T. (2019). Essentials of anatomy and physiology (8th ed.). F.
A. Davis Company.
Stables , D., & Rankin, J. (2017). Physiology in childbearing: With anatomy and related
Biosciences: With anatomy and related Biosciences (2nd ed.). Bailliere Tindall.

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