Specific Management issues
The issues considered in this case study are huge in numbers. The case study named “Challenge the boss or stand down?” helps to know the issues and the conflict which are used in the organization. The conflict has taken place between the boss and the subordinate which involves the following issues as mentioned below.
- Behavioral conflict issue between boss and subordinate
- Lack of understanding of roles and responsibilities
- Lack of cooperation and use of business ethics
- Challenging authority
- Misuse of position and power
The above mentioned issues are concluded from the given case study. The issues generated from the case has taken place from the subordinate as well as supervisor side. Both the employee and boss are responsible to create such issues in the organization and these issues are considered to be major issues.
Impact of the issues to the organization
The organization is having a severe effect and obviously after analyzing the case study given, it can be concluded that the issues involved are major issues which should be taken on highest priority. In case of any issues, the organization along with its employees have to suffer and later the effect will be seen in the productivity and the growth of the organization. The productivity will be reduced and which can create a conflict between employee and boss. As per discussed in the case study, it will require some time to solve the conflict that has raised between Tom and Frank. The conflict between them can also affect the productivity of the other employees and the organization might not be able to focus on its major projects. All the employees will have to suffer of there exists any issues in the organization and it will directly impact on the overall performance of the company.
This theory is the revised version of Maslow’s theory which was proposed by Clayton Alderfer. Clayton later divided the Maslow’s theory of needs into three different categories named Existence, Relatedness and Growth. All the above factors plays a major role in the growth and productivity of the organization. Under the category of existence needs, it includes good work environment, appropriate work hours, good salary, along with job security and other many additional benefits. After that, relatedness refers to the relationship and bonding that exists between the employees and the work environment. Social work environment is comprised of family, close friends, managers, and subordinates. There must be strong between all of them. Likewise, growth needs are those needs which are needed for an employee in order to produce maximum. He/she will focus on more productivity by getting more involved in the work and will experience high level of satisfaction.
According to the case study given. Tom plays a crucial role in the organization and if he decides to leave the organization, then the company must have to suffer a big loss. Despite of the loss for the company, Frank being the boss will also have to suffer a lot. According to the ERG theory of motivation, Frank should motivate Tom and convince him to perform his job and work for the projects that are really urgent. There must be some conditions which will attract Tom to remain with the company and perform well instead of leaving the job. The additional benefits may include job security, extra pay for extra working hours, bonus, and rewards in terms of monetary and non-monetary. This will help Frank to get his projects. Moreover, Tom will also be benefited in completed urgent task and getting more benefits rather than involving in Kiosk works. Thus, it can be stated that Frank should motivate Tom and get his work done.
Acquired needs theory
Acquired needs theory was introduced by David McClelland in a book named “The Achieving Society” in the year 1961. This needs theory basically conclude of three major categories of needs that helps to motivate people. The three major needs are Achievement, Authority and Affiliation. Based on the given theory of motivation, the employees needs changes over specific period of time and he/she experiences a lot with the interval of time. It happens usually that the leader have high level of motivational power and they expect that their subordinates must work according to him and the work must be completed as per directed. This comes under achievement. Likewise, under authority, the employees in the organization give their 100 % to show their skills and work hard enough to complete their task. Affiliation motivation helps and ensure employees to create a strong bonding and relationship between subordinates and boss. The employees under this category usually need approval rather than recognition.
As per the case study, Frank should motivate Tom by motivating him towards his task. He should provide certain authority to Tom so that he could take some decisions on the behalf of Tom. Tom must have the authority to take some decisions without the approval of Frank. If Frank will do so, then it will give an opportunity to Tom to work hard and have a feeling of happiness. He will think as if he is also a major part of the company and his decisions really matters. This will make him realize that the company really need Tom to complete the task and achieve the desired objectives.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg’s two factor theory was proposed in the year 1959 which includes two majorly factors. This theory was introduced by Herzberg. The two major factors of this theory are Motivational factors and Hygiene factors. Motivational factors are also known as intrinsic factors which aims and improving the level of job satisfaction. While hygiene factors are those factors that will prohibit employees’ dissatisfaction within the company. The employee dissatisfaction also plays a significant role in an organization. Hygiene factors include salary, Status, job security and proper work condition which creates a level of satisfaction in the employees. Similarly, motivational factor conclude of growth, career enhancement and growth of achievement.
According to the given case study, all the above factors must be provided to Tom by Frank. If both the factors will be provided to the employee, then it will ultimately increase the productivity and willingness of the employee towards the completion of the assigned task. Since Tom is a good employee and he really works hard to complete the task. He is dedicated towards his job. Frank should make sure that Tom is provided an additional benefits and should also encourage him that will help to perform his task with more concentration. If the facilities are unavailable then it will definitely affect the employee and create dissatisfaction and thus, the overall production will be hampered. It will affect the entire productivity.
Human Resources theories and models
The Harvard model
The Harvard Model was introduced in the year 1984. This model aims at using the strategic map within the company which helps employees to be more competitive in nature and create more efficiency. This model helps to focus on the soft aspect of the Human resource factors. There are six major components of this model which include stakeholders’ level of interest which is comprised of shareholder, employees, government and management are the major stakeholders, situational factors such as workforce, innovations, norms, values.
The other many components includes HRM policies, HR outcomes, long term outcomes and feedback. All the above mentioned components plays a major role in an organization in order to enhance the overall performance of the employee in a more effective and efficient way.
AMO theory was introduced in the year 2003 by Boxall and Purcell. According to this theory, performance is the end result of Ability, Motivation and Opportunity. A person can only perform well when he/she will be given an opportunity and motivated towards his/her work. If a person has the ability to do any certain task then he must be motivated towards it. An opportunity is automatically created when he/she shows his/her willingness towards a specific task. According to the given case study, Frank being a boss should motivate Tom and encourage him to complete the task. He should create opportunities for Tom to get his task completed. Tom must think he plays an important character in the organization which will motivate him to work for the urgent tasks. Tom will not be able to work with dedication unless he feels his importance. So, it is the Frank who will motivate him.
Leadership theories, models or concepts
Trait theory is the theory which helps to generate ideas that a leader adopts from his/her personal traits. The personal traits is comprised of six major types such as intelligence, adjustment, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to new experiences and self-efficacy.
According to the case study given, Frank being the boss plays the role of a leader in an organization. He must have the above mentioned traits within himself. A leader is the one who let others follow him. He must create an example for others. He must be responsible enough to get all this task done by others at the assigned time. As Frank lacks such traits, he should also work upon it. He is a good person but he should be easy going and treat employee way better than he treated Tom. He should not be so aggressive which will affect the employees and the performance of the company as well. Leader plays a vital role in an organization and he is one who works of the objectives of the company. Here, Frank must be polite and responsible enough to treat the employee right.
Transformational theory is the theory that aims at focusing the leaders to target on the goals of the company. It also helps leader to work on achieving the mission and vision of the company. Transformational theory helps leaders to encourage subordinates to work on achieving the desired goals of the company. Here, achieving company goals of the crucial factor in any organization. A company must work hard to achieve the targeted goals. As per the case study given, Frank being the boss of the company should encourage employee to perform their task with high level of efficiency. Every employee must be clear that the mission and vision of the company plays a major role. Creating issues and getting involved in the conflicts and will reduce the overall performance of the company. So, Frank must set some standards for the employee that will give rise in the productivity.
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