Assignment Answers-Organic and Healthy Products:MPH5315

Assignment Answers-Organic and Healthy Products:MPH5315

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks 7CS020

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks 7CS020

Assignment Answers of The Ebola Outbreak Disease: BIOL11022

Assignment Answers of The Ebola Outbreak Disease: BIOL11022


The Ebola outbreak disease is a deadly disease that has affected a wide population all over the world, mainly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan in Africa. The source of contamination of virus is through the close contacts of the wild animals, mostly from primates that have already been infected from the viral disease.

 The transmission/ exposure of Ebola virus spreads from the blood and other bodily fluids of the primates such as bats, as these primates are utilized as the food source in many counties. Although Ebola virus was not able to infect humans, the several times person-to-bat transmission led to the spill over events that started causing diseases in humans too. The route of transmission of Ebola virus from person to person occurs through blood, body fluids, direct contact with clothes or body of infected person and through injected objects such as needles. WHO has recorded a total of 11323 west African people have died to date from the Ebola outbreak (Leligdowicz et al., 2016).

Among five known species of Ebola virus, four species can infect humans. The first outbreak of Ebola virus (as EBOV) occurred in south-eastern Guinea. However, later outbreak of (Zaire Ebolavirus species occurred with higher transmission rate in other regions of West Africa. The transmission of Zaire Ebolavirus species was much faster than the previous outbreak and 50-80% more challenging than the previous outbreak (Feldmann & Geisbert, 2011). The Zaire Ebolavirus species is known as the largest outbreak in west Africa history that occurred in year 2014. However, the epicentre of the transmission of EVD is known to be Sudan, where transmission occurred in year 2004 and caused infection in 17 people.

Characteristics of virus: Ebolavirus belongs to the family of Filovieidae and order Mononegavirales. Ebola virus is of filamentous shape with some strains of circles and of U shaped. The known viral particle of virus consists of filovirus virions that compose an envelope of 80 nm and contain negative-strand RNA. The high fatality rate of the infection caused viral haemorrhagic fever with plasma leakage. The common symptoms of Ebola virus disease are severe headache, joint pain, developing skin rashes, diarrhoea, vomiting, and impaired functions of kidney & liver, weakness & fatigue and sore throat. However, the insufficient facility of treatment in hospitals also led to a significant increase in the disease cases as the hospital workers had to be in close contact with the patients.

Methods being implemented to collect information about the Ebola virus in west Africa

the two consecutive fatal haemorrhagic illness causing fever were first recorded in the year 1976 in central Africa. Approximately 30,000 people were supposed to be affected by the serious illness of the Ebolavirus outbreak, out of which 12,000 patients died because of no cure and applicable treatment. Hence, WHO declared the outbreak as an emergency international concern to initiate the assessments to reduce the outbreak symptoms.  The retrospective study of Liberia and Sierra Leone represents the collected data of 5 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) of the epidemic. The symptoms take 2 to 21 days to appear. The epidemiological data is collected from the patient care centres, which are categories based upon the low or high-risk zone. Sampling is done to make the confirmation input the data quality of the outbreak; The investigated outbreak clinical trial is taken for patient triage procedure.

The 5 strains of Ebolavirus of Liberia and Sierra were managed to be treated by international medical corps (IMC). The patients that were cared under IMC were counted as 2,500 over 1 year of operation. Overall case fatality ratio of the patients was 57 percent for EVD positive patients while 8.1 % for the EVD negative patients possessing the significant symptoms of diarrhoea, red eyes, and funeral attendee. Multiple transporting agencies including government and private were received at ETU. The tests were confirmed through the laboratory screening. The research team collected and analyse the clinical results to inform the responses of the studies and maintain the quality for the future epidemics. The diagnosis of the virus can be made only after the arrival of the symptoms, as in absence of symptoms, if someone gets the test done, the pseudo positive results can also get because of the occurrence of other infectious agents in body. The Viral RNA or antibodies of the viral particle can be detected through the tissue culture. However, to detect the specific disease-causing agent can be done through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (or ELISA). The diagnostic methods of detecting virus are ELISA that detects specific antibodies (IgG and IgM) immunoglobins (Rewar and Mirdha 2014). The purpose of the formation of different tests in laboratories is to identify the

In Port Loko and Bombali districts of Sierra Leone, EVD testings were performed under public health England (PHE) laboratory. The tests were performed through the RT-PCR, where a gene target (EBOV locus) was analysed for the confirmation of the test. The instrument utilized for the detection of viral presence was done through the in-house Trombley assay (Weller et al., 2016).

The other laboratory, which also performed several tests to diagnose the availability of Ebolavirus in patients’ sample, was the Naval Medical Research Centre (NMRC) laboratory of America. NMRC laboratory utilized the Applied Biosystems Step OnePlus instrument to perform the tests by searching two gene targets of the virus (EBOV locus and minor groove binding locus). However, some of the other patients that left from NMRC and PHE laboratory were tested through the government-managed holding centres (Weller et al. 2016).

Findings of outbreak in different regions of Africa

There is no record of the new outcomes of the outbreak in year from 1979 to 1994. On the contrary, in year 2014 and 2016, the largest outcomes with over 28000 cases have recorded in West Africa. The most affected species were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. In the Guinea pig, the affected viral strain was Reston virus (or RESTV). Most cases were recorded in tropical rainforests and the nearly associated remote villages of West Africa such as Sudan, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, the understanding of the view of disease and the previous disease’s recommendation has enabled the rapid health responses of the people (Shears and O’Dempsey 2015).



Ebola virus species



Case fatality rate


Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo)












Zaire (DRC)
























Gabon and Republic of Congo






Republic of Congo






Democratic Republic of Congo











In year 2019, the portable and confirmed cases of Ebolavirus have demographically distributed in three main zones of Africa, which are the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ituri Provinces, and North & South Kivu. In the year 2019 June, three infected people of the same family who travelled from Uganda to DRC showed significant contamination from infections. The infected people died after some time when they returned to Uganda. The first case of Ebola reported in year 2019 after traveling of 3 infected people was reported in Goma in July. However, the second case was also reported in Goma at the end of July. Then, the medical centre of Ebola treatment initiated the treatment and care for the suspected patients.

After the laboratory diagnosis, Ebola WHO developed the standard treatment protocol for the care and treatment of the positive patients. The treatments were performed by the nurses, hygienists, physicians, psychologists, health officials and other healthcare facilities. The nursing staff visited 1-2 times a day to the patients with lower illness to the infections. However, for severe illness or major symptoms, staff used to round 4-5 times a day (World Health Organization 2014). 

Declaration of public health emergency: In year 2019, the Ebolavirus outbreak was declared as an emergency case by the director of WHO, Dr. Tedros Adhanom. Dr. Tedros Adhanom was concerned for the health system of DRC and suggested taking the noticeable and redoubling efforts. In order to reduce the outbreak, hard and extraordinary works are required to be done, which can be helped not only by government but also need the assistance of communities, public and political members. For the purpose of reducing the outbreak, a meeting was also held in DRC, named the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee. The committee focused on the recommendations and development of the outbreak prevention methods, in which Goma (a district of DRC) with two million people taken into consideration. Moreover, the funding issues to avoid the trade and travel restrictions, as the punitive economic consequences were discussed in of the recommendations was to help the people by minimizing the illness and not the panelise or stigmas people related to the outbreak interruptions (World Health Organization 2019).

Providing clinical care has proven the counter stone in managing the patient’s illness and spread of the disease. The clinical care consists of providing nutritional support, maintaining the electrolyte balance, blood pressure, oxygen status of the patient and hydration. Additionally, patients were supported with antidiarrheal agents, antiemetics and other medications, which are effective in managing the fever fatigue, and stopping the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. Such clinical trials have proven effective and successful in controlling the worsening condition of the outbreak in Congo (Martínez et al., 2015).

Moreover, clinical trials conducted to manage the EVD resulted in developing the drugs; REGN-EB3 and mAb114. The drugs provided effective survival rates to infectious diseases. mAb114 was developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, whereas REGN-EB3 was developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. Both the drugs are considered to be the hope for the future. Although eh evidence is not clear ad confirmed because of the large biodiversity in the African forests ecosystems that form the puzzle in maintaining the potential hosts (Caron et al. 2018).

Interpretation and clinical biosafety review of the outbreak

The interpretation of the data of the Ebola outbreak is based on the severity of the pathophysiology, which can be measured through the collected data. After the collection of the data, treatment of the patients is planned based upon their condition. Moreover, interpretation involves the treatment, cure and prevention methodologies of the outbreak to minimize the effects of the illness and reduce the chances of encountering in the future.

Pathophysiology of EVD is associated with end-organ dysfunction Ing and bacterial sepsis, affecting the host immune response. The strain EBOV binds with the immune cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells that spread in liver, spleen and the lymphatic system to spread the infection all over the body. Moreover, abortion can result in the pregnancy, if a woman is affected by the Ebolavirus illness (Fletcher et al. 2014).

The clinical laboratory data collection is used as the patient’s disease investigation, which is further determined for the [process of treatment.  The technologies other than ELISA, and RT-PCR, such as blood sampling through haematological and biochemistry parameters are also used in the international laboratories to characterize the course of the illness. Piccolo Xpress® is one of the famous Ebola treatment facilities recognised to treat the severity level of Ebolavirus. Piccolo blood chemistry analyser analysed the blood sample, whereas other instrument, Abasis (Comprehensive Metabolic Reagent Discs) trends to determine the metabolic measurements of body nutrients of the body to know the level of severity of patient’s condition. The nutrients include CO2, N, alkaline Phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen (Schieffelin et al. 2014).

Prevention and control measures of infection: Infection prevention and control (IPC) also established various clinical adjustments for the prevention and cure of the outbreak. The private rooms provided to the patients with the availability of adjustable beds, intravenous drips, medical staff, haemodialysis, mechanical ventilation, urinalysis, blood gas measurements and monitors. The illness can cause the reduction in clotting factors concentrating the products that lead in fibrin degradation, which eventually result in bleeding and inflammation (Leligdowicz et al. 2016).

The clinical centre of infection prevention and control has shown the concern about the EBOV illness and transmission and established some of the safe and preventive measures, such as using gloves, washing hands, protecting mucous membrane and donning of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the use of face shield or medical masks. The professional and public attention towards the experimental interventions were captured by the effective human clinical trials that utilise the efforts, designs, safety and efficacy of the dosing data. The clinical trial was intended to treat the spread of the infection and minimize the effects of the illness. Nurses or healthcare providers which are required to enter into the contaminated zone need the use of full personal protective equipment. Furthermore, the strategies also include education. Education is the way of making people aware of the signs, symptom and concern of the disease. For the successful intervention of education to the public, involvement of health education and local leaders is necessary to emphasize the education (World Health Organization 2019).

The data collection and the sampling procedure need to take the consent from the committees including Sierra Leone Ethics and Scientific Review Committee and Tulane University. The committees have approved the review of the biosafety protocols. The biosafety protocols include patients’ medical tests, reports, metabolic findings, and descriptive analysis of the patient’s condition. For example, metabolic diagnosis is a result of elevated measurement of the body nutrients, urea, creatinine, and co2 level in the Ebola-infected patients. Moreover, in the Ebola-positive patients, vital changes can be seen in approximately 6 hours, which include the elevated temperature. The higher the temperature, make the more chances of a patient’s condition to go worsen (Schieffelin et al. 2014).


Caron, A., Bourgarel, M., Cappelle, J., Liégeois, F., De Nys, H.M. and Roger, F., 2018. Ebola virus maintenance: if not (only) bats, what else?. Viruses, 10(10), p.549.

Feldmann, H., and Geisbert, T. W. 2011. Ebola haemorrhagic fever. The Lancet, 377(9768), 849-862.

Fletcher, T.E., Fowler, R.A. and Beeching, N.J., 2014. Understanding organ dysfunction in Ebola virus disease. Intensive Care Medicine, 40(12), pp.1936-1939.

Formenty, P. (2014). Ebola virus disease. In Emerging Infectious Diseases (pp. 121-134). Academic Press.

Gebretadik, F. A., Seifu, M. F., and Gelaw, B. K. 2015. Review on Ebola virus disease: its outbreak and current status. Epidemiology (sunnyvale), 5, 1-8.

Leligdowicz, A., Fischer, W. A., Uyeki, T. M., Fletcher, T. E., Adhikari, N. K., Portella, G., and Fowler, R. A. 2016. Ebola virus disease and critical illness. Critical Care, 20(1), 1-14.

Martínez, M.J., Salim, A.M., Hurtado, J.C. and Kilgore, P.E., 2015. Ebola virus infection: overview and update on prevention and treatment. Infectious diseases and therapy, 4(4), pp.365-390.

Rewar, S., and Mirdha, D. 2014. Transmission of Ebola virus disease: an overview. Annals of Global Health, 80(6), 444-451.

Schieffelin, J.S., Shaffer, J.G., Goba, A., Gbakie, M., Gire, S.K., Colubri, A., Sealfon, R.S., Kanneh, L., Moigboi, A., Momoh, M. and Fullah, M., 2014. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone. New England journal of medicine, 371(22), pp.2092-2100.

Shears, P., and O’Dempsey, T. J. D. 2015). Ebola virus disease in Africa: epidemiology and nosocomial transmission. Journal of Hospital Infection, 90(1), 1-9.

Weller, S.A., Bailey, D., Matthews, S., Lumley, S., Sweed, A., Ready, D., Eltringham, G., Richards, J., Vipond, R., Lukaszewski, R. and Payne, P.M., 2016. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2. 5) for rapid identification of Ebola virus disease in heat-treated blood samples obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 54(1), pp.114-119.

World Health Organization, 2014. Clinical management of patients with viral haemorrhagic fever: a pocket guide for the front-line health worker: interim emergency guidance-generic draft for West African adaptation 30 March 2014 (No. WHO/HSE/PED/AIP/14.05). World Health Organization.

World Health Organization, 2019. Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a public health emergency of international concern. Press Release, 17.

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mn4002qa fundamentals of management – answers introduction the report helps in un

mn4002qa fundamentals of management – answers  introduction the report helps in un


The report helps in understanding along with analyzing the performance of the group work along with different team dynamics and performance. With the help of different kinds of motivational theories and concepts of team, the overall analysis will be done for understanding the process in detailed way. Moreover, based on the different information gathered regarding the actions, the CVF’s actions imperatives will be implemented which will be beneficial for understanding the progress in a detailed way.

Reflection on the Group Work Using Teamwork and Motivational Theories

From the teamwork, it is noticed that there was quite lack of motivation among the team members and due to this, it was hampering the productivity of the teamwork. There are different techniques which can be used for enhancing the teamwork in the accurate way. As discussed by Belbin, there are nine team roles which need to be followed by the different team members for managing the work in the effective manner.

Resource Investigator is the first and foremost team role which will be beneficial for using the inquisitive nature for finding the different ideas for bringing back the team and gain competitive advantage. The team members should be able to explore the different opportunities which will be beneficial for making the team performance strong in nature (Sailer, Koutsolampros and Pachilova 2021).

Team worker is the other aspect which is missing in the team and the same can be improved through becoming the team worker. The respective approach will be helpful for the people in gelling up through using the versatility for identifying work required along with complete the same on behalf of the team (Omunakwe, Nwinyokpugi and Adiele 2018). The cooperative approach will be helpful for improving the performance of the team as this is the integral element which will be beneficial in making the team perform and grow significantly.

Coordinator is the other element which needs to be incorporated as the entire focus should be on the objectives of the team, draw out the team members and delegate the different tasks in the proper way (Masimula, van der Wath and Coetzee 2021). Clarifying the goals play the integral role which will be beneficial in improving the different objectives and gain competitive edge.

Plant needs to be the other aspect which needs to be adopted as the team members are not creative and they are quite dependent on the team leader. In a team, creativity is the key criteria which should be implemented for generating ideas and solves the problems in the proper way (Logan and Michael Malone 2018).

From the Belbin Team Roles, the overall analysis could be done which showcases the fact that while a person is working in a team, proper effectiveness and coordination plays the critical role in managing the tasks accurately. Turning the ideas in action along with organizing the work which needs to be performed and this will be beneficial in understanding the overall process of managing the different aspects (Khan and Wajidi 2018). The people should be having the drive as well as courage for overcome the challenges and gain competitive advantage. The completer finisher plays the integral role in managing the teamwork in the prosperous manner. Building the trust becomes one of the essential components which need to be implemented by the team members for managing the decision successfully.

From the overall analysis of the team work and performance, it becomes quite evident that there was quite inaccuracy among the team members which impacted the work productivity negatively. The team members did not have any proper bonding with one another and as a result, it was creating huge impact on the process of the work. In such scenario, the usage of Tuckman’s Model is significantly important for managing the different work in the proper and significant way (Hanaysha and Hussain 2018).

The model will be capable of recognizing fact that the groups do not mainly start fully formed as well as functioning. The proper functioning of the team is quite necessary wherein few steps need to be formed for the proper effectiveness and gain competitive advantage.

Forming is the first and foremost step in which team members will first meet and gain competitive advantage. The team leaders of the team should be capable for facilitating introductions along with highlighting skills and backgrounds of the people. The team members should be provided with details and given the scope to deliver the best work outcomes (Grant et al. 2018).

Storming is the other aspect wherein the team members will be mainly sharing their own ideas and this can be used as the opportunity for standing out in crowd and be accepted by different peers (Gorenšek 2020). The team leaders need to help the team through managing the competition among team members and make the communication much easy.

Norming is the other aspect wherein teams have been capable of figuring out the techniques for working together. There is no such internal competition along with managing the different goals and responsibilities effectively (Funminiyi 2018). When the people will be learning regarding their ideas, it gives them scope to deliver the best.

Performing is the second last stage wherein here is high level of cohesion and in such scenario, teams will be performing efficiently and when issues will be cropping up, the team will be working in the appropriate way to develop the best alternatives.

Adjourning is the last stage which can be followed for making the team members move towards the new projects. These will be quite beneficial in managing the best alternatives for the issues and gain competitive advantage (Fero and Dokoupilová 2019).

On the other hand, when the team is being formed in the proper manner, there will be inclusion of the motivational factors which will be beneficial for managing the tasks in the accurate way. The proper usage of Maslow’s Hierarchy Model will be able to understand the overall effectiveness of the team and the performance in the accurate way. This will be giving the best solution to the people and as a result, this will be helping the company and the team as a whole to perform brilliantly and achieve the best outcomes in the accurate manner. The motivation is helpful in regular one on ones when you are particularly thinking regarding the facts which will be helping them in understanding how best to develop the people and enable them also to thrive in the accurate way (Eberz 2020).

Psychological Needs is considered to be the first aspect wherein employees in team will be requiring the basic services which are vital like the drinking meals, comfortable working environment and the proper team leader. This will be beneficial in making the team work and grow in the efficient manner.

Safety Needs is the other aspects wherein the members need the overall satisfaction within workplace. The members are often worried regarding the aspects that they can be removed from the team if they are not able to perform well (Chowdhury and Murzi 2019).

Love and Belongingness Needs is the aspect wherein the different members should be able to feel loved and included in the work which is performed by them. Due to this, it will be giving them the scope to develop the best and gain competitive advantage.

Esteem Needs is the aspect wherein the engagement of the employees will be improving overall engagement of the workers. Offering the regular recognition as well as rewards will be quite beneficial in managing the performance of the team and gain competitive edge in the group as well (Brooks and Fenner 2018).

Self-Actualization Needs is the last one wherein the employees should be able to judge themselves and understand whether they are able to perform or they need more guidance in this prospect.

Additionally, Equity Theory plays the integral role in managing the employees in workplace and gain competitive edge. The theory will be helpful for illustrating the fact that there should be balance between how the different employees feel regarding the task, and how hard they should be working as a result. In the team settings, first place wherein the test surrounds is the equal opportunity provided to all employees as this will be giving them scope to deliver the best (Arifin, Nirwanto and Manan 2019).

Analysis of the CVF’s Action Imperatives 

From the overall analysis of the CVF’s Action Imperatives, it becomes quite clear that I have the proper capability to communicate in an efficient and honest way. Managing the groups along with working efficiently in the accurate way plays the integral role in managing the team performance and this will be beneficial in learning regarding the different approaches like the motivational prospects (Algashami et al. 2018). This will be giving the people the scope to talk with their minds open and as a result, it will be impacting the progress of the company and team in the positive manner. In the collaboration aspect, the rating is around 4 out of 5. This helps in proving the fact that proper efficiency is the key element which will be beneficial for the team to deserve the best in the comparison of the others. In the Control Section, it becomes quite clear that I have been able to motivate myself always; however, there is issue relating to motivating the others. This has been the major problem which needs to be rectified with the help of the Motivational Theories and Team Formation Theories.

While using the competencies of CVF, in the next three years, the aspects like the organizing the information flows along with encouraging as well as enhancing the compliance plays the integral role in managing the work in the effective manner. Setting the goals and objectives will be quite beneficial in defining the relevant kind of behaviors which are necessary for the progress of the team work in the accurate way (Abbas and Nawaz 2019). The code of ethics is quite missing in the approach which needs to be implemented which will prove to be beneficial for the progress of the process in detailed way. The proper usage of Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory along with the Equity Theory plays the integral role in managing the tasks in a systematic manner and this will be suitable for the people to learn and accept the different elements successfully.

After the review of my entire performance in assigned group, I have been capable of learning great deal with myself as well as behavior in the team setting situation. This is not the first kind of experience in team setting; there were different kinds of correlations along with commonalities between the team settings which need to be implemented in the accurate way. It was noted that there were few issues in the teamwork which was performed by the team and then it impacted the overall efficiency of the team.

The Competing Values Framework will be helping the team in maintaining the high level of stability in company in face of the unstable kind of business environment. This will be quite accurate for learning the different elements like the importance of the trust, ethical behavior and coordination in the group tasks which are performed by them. Through this, it will be giving the people the scope to deliver the best and in the optimal manner. The relevant kind of behavior includes the proper trust and inclusion of all employees in the process which will be giving the employees the best aspects of the business and they will be giving their best in all the tasks which are assigned to them. Through this, the overall analysis has been conducted which provided the brief overview on elements like the proper expectations and the proper efficiency which are needed to be maintained.


Therefore, it is concluded that the proper motivation and the teamwork plays the integral role in managing the business prospects successfully. The motivation is the critical element which should be provided to all employees as they are the integral part of the team and their ideas should be incorporated while they will be managing the tasks successfully. These are the few aspects which have been adopted and analyzed in this report and this provides the better level of understanding on elements like trust, proper communication along with ethical approach in managing the tasks accordingly in the near future.


Abbas, G. and Nawaz, A., 2019. Linking employee motivation with teamwork-spirit: the influence of social skills and self-confidence. Gomal University Journal of Research, 35(2), pp.87-97.

Algashami, A., Cham, S., Vuillier, L., Stefanidis, A., Phalp, K. and Ali, R., 2018, October. Conceptualising gamification risks to teamwork within enterprise. In IFIP Working Conference on The Practice of Enterprise Modeling (pp. 105-120). Springer, Cham.

Arifin, Z., Nirwanto, N. and Manan, A., 2019, April. Reducing the Negative Bullying at Work Impact on Employee Performance through Absorption and Team Work. In 2nd Padang International Conference on Education, Economics, Business and Accounting (PICEEBA-2 2018) (pp. 601-608). Atlantis Press.

Brooks, L.M. and Fenner, C., 2018. The effect of materialistic behavior on the workplace motivation in business managers. Academy of Business Research Journal, 4, pp.26-41.

Chowdhury, T. and Murzi, H., 2019, July. Literature review: Exploring teamwork in engineering education. In Proceedings of the Conference: Research in Engineering Education Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa (pp. 10-12).

Eberz, F., 2020. Generational Differences in the Workplace?: Let’s Ask the Managers!. In Global Applications of Multigenerational Management and Leadership in the Transcultural Era (pp. 163-195). IGI Global.

Fero, M. and Dokoupilová, L., 2019. Factors of work motivation and coexistence of generations at the workplace. Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology, 27(s1), pp.15-24.

Funminiyi, A.K., 2018. Impact of workplace environmental factors on employee commitment: Evidence from North East Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(07), pp.575-585.

Gorenšek, M., 2020. Employee Motivation at the Workplace: Case Study of Slovenian Company. ENTRENOVA-ENTerprise REsearch InNOVAtion, 6(1), pp.291-297.

Grant, C., Nawal, D., Guntur, S.M., Kumar, M., Chaudhuri, I., Galavotti, C., Mahapatra, T., Ranjan, K., Kumar, G., Mohanty, S. and Alam, M.A., 2018. ‘We pledge to improve the health of our entire community’: Improving health worker motivation and performance in Bihar, India through teamwork, recognition, and non-financial incentives. PLoS One, 13(8), p.e0203265.

Hanaysha, J.R. and Hussain, S., 2018. An examination of the factors affecting employee motivation in the higher education sector. Asia-Pacific Journal of Management Research and Innovation, 14(1-2), pp.22-31.

Khan, M.R. and Wajidi, A., 2019. Role of leadership and team building in employee motivation at workplace. GMJACS, 9(1), pp.11-11.

Logan, T.R. and Michael Malone, D., 2018. Nurses’ perceptions of teamwork and workplace bullying. Journal of nursing management, 26(4), pp.411-419.

Masimula, Q.K., van der Wath, A. and Coetzee, I., 2021. Promoting a person-centred workplace culture in a public nursing education institution in South Africa by fostering effective teamwork amongst nurse educators. Nurse Education Today, 99, p.104783.

Omunakwe, P.O., Nwinyokpugi, P.N. and Adiele, K.C., 2018. Workplace interpersonal relationship and organizational productivity in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt. Jour of Eco, Management & Social Science, 4(4), pp.153-177.

Sailer, K., Koutsolampros, P. and Pachilova, R., 2021. Differential perceptions of teamwork, focused work and perceived productivity as an effect of desk characteristics within a workplace layout. PloS one, 16(4), p.e0250058.

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Project Work Solutions of Issue Regarding The Survival: MGMT8003

Project Work Solutions of Issue Regarding The Survival: MGMT8003

The world is facing an issue regarding the survival while competing against each other. This is important enough for managing changes in an effective way.  It is difficult for the managers to implement the change and to focus on customer satisfaction. Companies need to take care of employee motivation and performance as an important tool in order to generate effective results.  The concept of employee motivation is a primary issue among all that requires an effective leadership and motivation technique(Employee Motivation, 2018).   Unmotivated candidate tend to cause organizational failure. There are chances that the employees are not ready to perform well causes organizational failure.   This concept is a central factor that causes problem in managing organizational growth.  Workers who are motivated to work hard are productive for the company. It is evident from the point of view of gaining effectiveness and gaining organizational competency(Luthans,2010).   It is necessary from the point of view of generating better results. The high-end quality is important for furnishing goals. It is manageable from the point of view of gaining quality goals.   

This is crucial for the business organization to find out the proper and effective way to organize resources. It is therefore important for the business organization to ensure effectiveness by creating a balance in between physical, emotional, mental and spiritual aspect.  Today a majority of business organizations are focusing on generating better opportunities(McShane and Von Glinow, 2011). These will surely allow in maximizing organizational growth. The purpose behind motivating employees is to retain effective growth. This is necessary from the point of generating better growth opportunity in order to enable organizational effectiveness. This is necessary for generating better results and ensuring effective growth that will surely allow in maintaining the balance.   There is a change in employment practices in recent time that has created a long term benefit(Miner, 2015). One of the most important parts of an organization is to understand the changing factors that are important to understand the employee satisfaction.  This is necessary enough for creating a balance in between the management and the employees.  It is important for managing the changes that are taking place in order to motivate employees and to generate results.   It is quite necessary for the business organization to organize the organizational resources in order to manage all the basic necessities(Nelson and Cooper,2007).   It is important for appealing effective knowledge and development.  The management therefore requires understanding requirement of important project in order to understand the requirement of effective employee motivation and job performance. This is important enough in order to deal in a better way that will allow in managing goals in order to generate long term sustainable results.  It is necessary for attaining growth in an organization while stimulating the employee performance. The employees tend to work efficiently only when there is a necessity manages goals(Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright,2007).

Most of the employees are constantly working in order to manage effectiveness.  Those companies who has implemented an effective job satisfaction.  This process will allow in gaining managing long-term sustainable results.  It is necessary enough for gaining organizational effectiveness and perfuming tasks that are better for a business.  Those organizations evaluating effective business process in order to gain better goals. The primary focus is employee’s satisfaction and efficient job performance. Motivation is referred as a willingness to put an extra effort towards achieving a goal(Pinder,2014).   It is necessary for managing roles and responsibilities. Motivation is not similar to job satisfaction.  Employee performance is important for the overall growth of the company. Performance is vital factor that is necessary for managing organization in order to attain effective role and responsibility.  It is evident for the purpose of gaining growth and applying organizational success in order to meet results.  This is only possible if the employees are performing extraordinary(Robbins and  Judge,2012). But to achieve the extraordinary performance it is important to achieve consistent results. In order to perform well, it is necessary to align the organization.  It is effective from the point of view of gaining competency in order to generate results. Employees are more inclined towards consistent performance that will allow in gaining results for the purpose of long term sustainability. It is therefore important for managing effective role in order to improve organizational results. Changing organization role has created roles that have helped in improving brand value. It is evident for the purpose to generate better results. This is necessary for organizing reports for the purpose of meeting evident result.  It is only possible if the company is able to understand employees aspiration related to a job. This is necessary from the point of view of gaining organizational goals. It is however important for achieving employee motivation and growth. This is necessary for managing the long term growth and managing the applicable result that will allow in enhancing organizational growth(Slocum and Hellriegel,2009).

For those organizations that are using the factors that are important for managing important factors in order to attain effective organizational goals. It is necessary for managing roles that are essential for the business organization in order to meet better result. Human resource management plays a crucial role in this case while recruiting the right and efficient employees.  This practice is important to manage the process in a formal way. This will help in arranging the organizational goals and formulating effective role.   Prior to recruiting the organizations have to integrate the path in the most effective way by integrating the roles and responsibilities.   There is a necessity to develop an effective training and development process that will somehow allow in generating resources. This is necessary for attaining results and motivating employees through different mode. It is important for dealing in most of the factors that are necessary for generating the best possible way that is allocating effective way that is synchronizing effectiveness. Job design is important for generating the most beneficial purpose. It is important enough to generate result.  This is considered as one of the important activity that needs to be handled efficiently. This is necessary for generating performance based results(Wright and Nishii,2007). It is important from the point of developing results in order to magnify the impact of growth and development.

This is important for developing effective employee performance. It is necessary for dealing with the situation in order to arrange organizational results. Rewarding of employees is one of the important aspect that required to be managed in order to encourage them   both financial and non-financial incentives are important for the motivating employees. This helps in boosting employee’s morale. Employers do not put emphasis on the non-monetary benefits. However, these non-monetary benefits are important for gaining long term benefit. It is necessary for managing long term employee’s benefit and appealing sustainable growth and achieving effectiveness.  However the change introduced in the recent time has helped in gaining long term results in term of organizational growth(van Scheers and Botha, 2014). Maslow theory focuses primarily on the individual motivation and provides information regarding the employee satisfaction.  The purpose is to arrange better results and allowing management of resources that is based as: tarts from the bottom going up in this order: physiological needs, safety needs, love/belonging, self-esteem and finally self-actualization. The theory claims that the work place is a setting where people are trying to satisfy their internal needs.   The first basic assumption is that human being is influenced by the behavior.  The satisfaction of one need give rise to another need.   The second assumption states that people tend to put their needs in accordance to their needs.  The hierarchy is formed from the basic requirement that is housing and eating follow with the other major needs.   Achievement and self esteem requirements formed to be the needs at a higher level.  The final assumption is that satisfaction of one need creates another need of advance level.  Employees have to focus on growth and development that has helped in creating possible focus on their individual growth and development.   This is important from the point of view of improving their interest(Ford, 2014).    

To conclude, Employee motivation is one of the important factors that are required to be seen while focusing on deciding the different parameter. In judging the individual employee performance and growth it is one of the important factors that are required to be managed. It is therefore necessary from the point of view of generating concrete focus on employee growth   It is necessary for managing employee growth and organisational development. While generating long term organizational growth it is necessary to focus on systematic job design and performance. Hence it is clear that the organization requires productive performance from employees, with a proper design of jobs, working conditions, setting of goals, motivation and rewards.  These factors play an important role in gaining organizational goal and achieving sustainable growth. From the point of view of gaining sustainable organizational growth and individual growth it is necessary to stimulate employee encouragement.


Employee Motivation, 2018. Online. Available at: Accessed on: 19 Jan 2018

Ford, J.K., 2014. Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Psychology Press.

Luthans, F. 2010. Organizational Behavior 12 edition. McGraw-Hill Education.

McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M. 2011. M: Organizational behavior. Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Miner, J. B. 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Nelson, D., & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.). 2007. Positive organizational behavior. Sage.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. 2007. Fundamentals of human resource management. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Pinder, C. C. 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. 2012. Essentials of organizational behavior. Essex: Pearson

Slocum, J.W. and Hellriegel, D., 2009. Principles of organizational behavior. South-Western Cengage Learning.

van Scheers, L. and Botha, J., 2014. Analysing relationship between employee job satisfaction and motivation. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 9(1).

Wright, P.M. and Nishii, L.H., 2007. Strategic HRM and organizational behavior: Integrating multiple levels of analysis. CAHRS Working Paper Series, p.468.

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Soya Bean Food Products: MNGT1001

Soya Bean Food Products: MNGT1001

1.0 Description of company

Mr Bean Group Limited is a Singapore based retailer company. This company is a part food and beverage retailer industry and mainly known for producing soya bean-based drinks and food products. The company is situated in more than 65 locations across the globe and they majorly deal in South-east Asian countries. Mr Bean was founded in 1995 and currently the company is managed by the Super Bean International. The company was founded by Kang Puay Seng and Loh Jwee Poh and today it is one of the leading manufacturer and retailer of soya bean beverages and food retailers across the Singapore. Company is now planning to expand its operations in the international market and for the same reason, they have asked their management team to analyse the organizational pestle analysis and the competitive analysis in order to determine the strengths and the capabilities in relevance with the external business environmental conditions.

The report will include the competitive analysis, pestle analysis and the impact of those factors over the performance of the organization. With the help of analysis, organization could easily determine the requirement of the strategies through which the performance could be increased along with the expansion related objectives would be attained (Mr Bean, 2018).

2.0 PESTLE analysis

This is the tool through which organization could be able to analyse the external environmental condition of the industry. This technique consists of various factors such as political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental. Analysis would be made in relation with the factors which could affect the functionalities of the organization (Chung & Parker, 2010).

2.1 Explanation of PESTLE analysis

Political: National political frameworks and rules and regulations developed by government authorities are the major factors which affect the functionalities of the organizations. Mr Bean Group Limited is engaged in providing soya bean beverages and food products, thus, political barriers will not affect their functionalities. In order to increase the efficiency, organization is required to consider all the regulations and the frameworks described by the government in relevance with smooth functioning of the organization (Baakile, 2011).

Economic: People are becoming more aware about the health conditions and with the effect from this, diamond for the soya products are increasing in the international market. Thus, Mr Bean has great opportunities to set up their place in the emerging markets with its soya products and beverages (Massoud, Fayad, El-Fadel & Kamleh, 2010).

Social: Consumers’ demand and the requirements are changing constantly and with the introduction of soya based products and beverages, organization could increase its effectiveness along with the fulfilling the demands of the consumers. It is crucial for Mr Beans to produce soya products as per the taste of customers along with the business functionalities to remain successful in the global markets (Tamang & Kailasapathy, 2010).

Technology: Technology is changing rapidly and organizations are required to adopt those changes in their functionalities with the motive to increase the efficiency of the organization. Demand for soya products are increasing and with the increase in the demand, production should also be increased and this could easily be done with the help of technological improvements in order to bring the technological up gradation in the workplace (Damron & Damron, 2013).

Legal: Soya products produced by Mr Beans should be done on the basis of consumer’s requirements as well as on the basis of laws and regulations. Non-fulfilment of the laws may generate issues for the organization and it may also lead to shut down of the business. Thus, all the laws in relation with the production of the soya products need to be considered for conducting the smooth functionalities (Ho, 2014).

Environmental: Mr Beans is following the rule of art of sharing and giving. With this rule, organization is required to precede its functionalities through considering all the environmental aspects. Along with this, it is required to adopt certain steps by the organization through which environment do not get affected. Company believes production through recycling, adopting the strategies for saving the energy and water resources and with the help of eliminating the waste from the production process (Morden, 2016).

2.2 Impact of PESTLE factors on company

Political: Non-fulfilment of the political policies and the framework will affect the functionalities of organization and this will affect the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. Mr Beans is engaged in the food and beverage industry and it is required for them to adopt certain strategies through which quality standards and the ethical practices must be followed in relevance with producing the appropriate qualitative soya based products and beverages (Peppard & Ward, 2016).

Economic: With the increase in the demand for soya products and drinks, Mr Beans needs to fulfil those needs in an appropriate manner through maintaining the same level of quality. Along with this, all the nutritious ingredients should be used in order to satisfy the consumer’s needs. Price of the product should also be set on the basis of effective pricing strategy which could increase the effectiveness of the organization (Srdjevic, Bajcetic & Srdjevic, 2012).

Social: Social factors such as consumer’s demand, their taste, preferences and other attributes have huge impact over the organizational performance. Ignorance of these factors may lead to decrease in the demand of the products and beverages (Zalengera, Blanchard, Eames, Juma, Chitawo & Gondwe, 2014).

Technological: Amendments in the technology should be adopted on the basis of environmental conditions. This helps the organization to increase its productivity and the level of customer satisfaction could also be increased. Non-adaptation of the technological factors may affect the efficiency of the organization (Kolios & Read, 2013).

Legal: Legal factors such as policies, laws, regulations and the frameworks developed by the legal authorities may affect the organizational performance. Thus, it is required to perform the functionalities on the basis of rules and regulations in order to attain the desired goals and the objectives (Chen, Chiang & Storey, 2012).

Environment: Environmental conditions are being affected rapidly and this is the primary reason, people are concentrating towards saving the environment. Thus, it is required for the organizations to initiate certain projects through which environmental conditions could be improved and with the help of these projects, organization will be able to develop a positive image in the consumer’s mind-sets (Quer, Claver & Rienda, 2012).

3.0 Porter’s five forces

This technique is being used for analysing the competitor for the company in the target market and determination of the competitor’s strategies are also analysed from this technique. Apart from this, this technique helps the organization to develop and adopt certain advanced strategies through which organization could be able to uplift the performance along with gaining the adequate competitive advantage (Martin & Swank, 2012).

3.1 Porter’s five forces

Threat of new entrants: Mr Beans is a food and beverage retailer brand based in Singapore. They are known for producing soya beans products and drinks in order to provide healthier drinks and food items to its target audience. Organization has set up an effective goodwill in the market and in these scenarios; entries of new companies in the same industry will affect the business functionalities of the existing organizations along with the functionalities of Mr Beans (Dobbs, 2014). 

Threat of Substitutes: This factor does not have huge impact over the performance of Mr Beans because they deal in health conscious products while its substitutes will be cold drinks, fast food items, etc. which are totally unhealthy. Apart from this, Mr Beans concentrates over the demands of the consumers and then delivers them the products on the basis of their requirements. Organization needs to maintain the quality of its products along with the taste in order to gain the advantage in the market otherwise, substitutes of soya bean products and beverages will overtake the current position of the organization (Yunna & Yisheng, 2014).

Bargaining power of suppliers: Suppliers to this industry are limited and in order to maintain the same position in the target market and to expand the business, it is required to adopt certain strategies through which effective relationship could be developed amongst the suppliers. Apart from this, suppliers plays crucial role in the success and failure of an organization in the business market. Regular switching the suppliers may affect the quality of the products and services delivered by the company; thus, it is required to deliver the appropriate quality and quantity of the products in order to retain the consumers and to attain appropriate goals and the objectives (Dobbs, 2014)

Bargaining power of customers: Customers does not have huge choices in terms of soya bean products and beverages in the Singapore. Thus, this factor’s impact over the organization is quite weak and in order to enhance the performance of the organization and to retain its consumers, it is required for the organization to uplift the quality of its products in relevance with the developing and maintaining an effective image of the organization in the competitive business environment (Dälken, 2014).

Industry Rivalry: When huge number of companies is available in the market, rivalry is intense. In order to gain the competitive advantage, organizations are required to adopt the innovative and effective strategies in relevance with fulfilment of the target audience’s demands along with developing a unqiue position in the target market (Perdana, Roshetko & Kurniawan, 2012).

3.2 Impact of porter’s forces over organization

Impact of these forces may affect the organizational performance and it may lead to decrease in the efficiency of the organization. Following are certain elements which could affect the performance of the organization:

Threat of new entrants: New organizations in the food and beverage industry may provide better quality and wide range of products which could attract the target audience. With the effect of this, existing organization’s functionalities and performance may get affected. Thus, it has been recommended to the existing organizations to adopt dynamic strategies which could help the existing companies to maintain their effective image in the competitive business environment along with gaining the competitive advantage in the target market (Vanthoor-Koopmans, Wijffels, Barbosa & Eppink, 2013).

Threat of Substitutes: Substitutes will not be able to create much impact over the demand of the soya bean products and beverages. Apart from this, introduction of other healthy drinks may generate negative impact over the soya bean products. It has been reviewed that consumer’s taste, preferences and demands are changing constantly as per the dynamic business requirements. Thus, it has been recommended to the Mr Beans that they needs to adopt innovative and advanced strategies through which the demand for soya bean products could be remained constant.

Bargaining power of suppliers: Suppliers plays vital role in the success and failure of the organization and in order to increase the efficiency of the organization, relationship amongst the suppliers should be developed in order to gain the positive results from the organization. In order to get the materials from the suppliers at affordable prices, positive relations should be developed amongst them (Jiang, Cai & Xu, 2013).

Bargaining power of consumers: Bargaining power consumers may affect the business performance when the organization will fail to adopt the strategies on the basis of business requirements. Along with this, it is essential for the organization in order to uplift their performance and the efficiency in the target market. Management of the organization is required to adopt the techniques in relevance with the business environments and target audience’s demand.

Industry Rivalry: Impact of industry rivalry on the Mr Beans’ performance will be huge. New comers and the existing organizations will adopt unique strategies for increasing the effectiveness and the efficiency in terms to attain their desired goals and the objectives. While, it is also necessary for the Mr Beans to adopt the same in order to maintain their effective image as well as to uplift their performance through which the expansion and growth related objectives could be enhanced.

4.0 Strategic Recommendations

4.1 Expansion

It has been recommended to the company to adopt certain innovative and dynamic strategies and tools through which the desired goals could be attained easily. Apart from this, it is also crucial in order to uplift the organizational performance in the target market along with expansion related objectives in the overseas as well as in the domestic market could be done easily. 

4.2 Merger and Acquisition

In order to enhance the organizational performance in the international and in the domestic markets, it has been recommended to the company to adopt the strategies of partnership and making a joint venture type of firm with the highly reputed and well-known brands. This will help the company to develop a positive goodwill in the target market. Apart from this, organization could also utilise the merger and acquisition strategy in order to set up an effective image in the target market. Merging with a reputed brand or acquiring a domestic brand in the target market will help the management to understand the market environment. This strategy will help them to attain the goals and the objectives in relation with the expectations of the management. Joint venture is another form of effective business and with the help of this, two companies can simultaneously work upon the desired project for accomplishment of targets.

4.3 Modifications in organizational structure

For increasing the organizational effectiveness along with increasing the efficiency of the organization, it has been recommended to the organization to amend or to improve the organizational structure in order to improve the functionality of the organization. Apart from this, innovative marketing activities and the strategies could also be utilised in order to spread the awareness amongst the target audience in relevance with the organizational products and services.

4.4 Introduction of new product or service

Along with the above strategies, Mr Bean could introduce certain improvised and innovative soya based food items and the beverages with good taste and on the basis of its target audience’s requirements. This will help the organization to increase its effectiveness along with the development of unique image in the target market. Introduction of the new products and services will help the organization to gain the market share along with development of the effective goodwill in the market.

5.0 Conclusion

From the aforesaid discussion, it can be concluded that the Mr Beans is a company engaged in the production of soya bean food products and beverages through which the consumer’s requirements are fulfilled in relevance with healthier cum tasty drinks and food items. In order to analyse the organizational effectiveness, this report concluded the various aspects such as macro environmental factors and competitive analysis and its factors have been discussed in relevance with expanding the business in the overseas markets. The last part of the report included the recommendation part through which the desired goals and the objectives could easily be attained.

6.0 References

Baakile, M. (2011). Comparative analysis of teachers’ perception of equity, pay satisfaction, affective commitment and intention to turnover in Botswana. Journal of Management Research, 3(1), 1.

Chen, H., Chiang, R. H., & Storey, V. C. (2012). Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact. MIS quarterly, 36(4).

Chung, L. H., & Parker, L. D. (2010). Managing social and environmental action and accountability in the hospitality industry: A Singapore perspective. In Accounting Forum (Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 46-53). Elsevier.

Dälken, F. (2014). Are porter’s five competitive forces still applicable? a critical examination concerning the relevance for today’s business (Bachelor’s thesis, University of Twente).

Damron, W. S., & Damron, W. S. (2013). Introduction to animal science: global, biological, social, and industry perspectives.

Dobbs, M. E. (2012). Porter’s five forces in practice: Templates for firm and case analysis. In Competition Forum(Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 22). American Society for Competitiveness.

Dobbs, M. E. (2014). Guidelines for applying Porter’s five forces framework: a set of industry analysis templates. Competitiveness Review, 24(1), 32-45.

Ho, J. K. K. (2014). Formulation of a systemic PEST analysis for strategic analysis. European academic research, 2(5), 6478-6492.

Jiang, S., Cai, W., & Xu, B. (2013). Food quality improvement of soy milk made from short-time germinated soybeans. Foods, 2(2), 198-212.

Kolios, A., & Read, G. (2013). A political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) approach for risk identification of the tidal industry in the United Kingdom. Energies, 6(10), 5023-5045.

Martin, C. J., & Swank, D. (2012). The political construction of business interests: coordination, growth, and equality. Cambridge University Press.

Massoud, M. A., Fayad, R., El-Fadel, M., & Kamleh, R. (2010). Drivers, barriers and incentives to implementing environmental management systems in the food industry: A case of Lebanon. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(3), 200-209.

Morden, T., 2016. Principles of strategic management. Routledge.

Mr Bean. (2018). Accessed on 21st January 2018 from

Peppard, J. and Ward, J., 2016. The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Perdana, A., Roshetko, J. M., & Kurniawan, I. (2012). Forces of competition: smallholding teak producers in Indonesia. International Forestry Review, 14(2), 238-248.

Quer, D., Claver, E., & Rienda, L. (2012). Political risk, cultural distance, and outward foreign direct investment: Empirical evidence from large Chinese firms. Asia Pacific journal of management, 29(4), 1089-1104.

Srdjevic, Z., Bajcetic, R., & Srdjevic, B. (2012). Identifying the criteria set for multicriteria decision making based on SWOT/PESTLE analysis: a case study of reconstructing a water intake structure. Water resources management, 26(12), 3379-3393.

Tamang, J. P., & Kailasapathy, K. (Eds.). (2010). Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC press.

Vanthoor-Koopmans, M., Wijffels, R. H., Barbosa, M. J., & Eppink, M. H. (2013). Biorefinery of microalgae for food and fuel. Bioresource technology, 135, 142-149.

Yunna, W., & Yisheng, Y. (2014). The competition situation analysis of shale gas industry in China: Applying Porter’s five forces and scenario model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 798-805.

Zalengera, C., Blanchard, R. E., Eames, P. C., Juma, A. M., Chitawo, M. L., & Gondwe, K. T. (2014). Overview of the Malawi energy situation and A PESTLE analysis for sustainable development of renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 38, 335.

Task Solutions of Causes of Climate Change Continues: BB101

Task Solutions of Causes of Climate Change Continues: BB101

Future picture of climate change in India; where it may lead to if the causes of climate change continues

The problem of climate change started when the average temperature of the earth increase and it is now 15°C (BBC News 2018). It is also stated by experts that if climate change continues, summers in India could last for about 8 months due to prolonged heat-wave conditions. The environmental condition of India will be a combination of heat and humidity and this combination is known as “wet-bulb temperature”. This temperature never crossed above 32°C but scientists portrays that the temperature currently touch 31°C and if climate change continues, it will exceed 35°C (BBC News 2018). This weather is dangerous for workers mainly doing outdoor jobs as their cardiovascular and respiratory conditions will get adversely impacted. Experts also says that India will be one of the most affected countries due to the increase in population that will estimated to be 1.7 billion by 2050 according to a risk index released at COP23 (Nasir 2018).  In addition to that, the monsoon problem in India will increase in the next 25 years as published in Hindustan Times (Hindustan Times 2018). The data represents that 25% and 40% of districts faced heavy rainfall and drought in 2017 (Hindustan Times 2018). Taken for instance, Bangaluru City faced 30% of its annual rain in a single day. So, it can be stated that the continuation of climate change will cause water crisis, more droughts and rainfalls, cloudburst and challenge to food security.

Comparison between India and other country suffering from climate change

In South America, the agriculture is already impacted and in India also this effect will be soon witnessed and the effect will also be on the 48.8% of the India’s working population currently employed for agricultural purpose (Hindustan Times 2018). Kumar et al. (2014) stated that in northeast, Agartala that in the last 5 years had received more than 11 times of daily monsoon rain and in India rising sea surface temperatures resulted in heavy monsoon rainfall in the area Bihar, Odisha, and Jharkhand, West Bengal, Gujarat, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh. In Latin America, the decrease in soil water results in replacement of tropical forest that leads to desertification and salinisation of agricultural land; the same adversity occur in Himalayas, northern and Western Ghats according to the vulnerability index (Pacifici et al. 2015). India is liable for 4.4% carbon emission due to livestock and if the problem of climate change increases, these livestock will face animal health problems (De Lavergne et al. 2014).

Reference List 

BBC News., 2018. What is climate change?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Jan. 2018].

De Lavergne, C., Palter, J.B., Galbraith, E.D., Bernardello, R. and Marinov, I., 2014. Cessation of deep convection in the open Southern Ocean under anthropogenic climate change. Nature Climate Change, 4(4), pp.278-282.

Hindustan Times., 2018. In next 25 years river floods to impact six times more Indians. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Jan. 2018].

Kumar, S.N., Aggarwal, P.K., Rani, D.S., Saxena, R., Chauhan, N. and Jain, S., 2014. Vulnerability of wheat production to climate change in India. Climate Research, 59(3), pp.173-187.

Nasir, N, 2018. Water Crisis, Food Security Amidst Climate Change In India. [online] BW Businessworld. Available at: [Accessed 14 Jan. 2018]., 2018. BBC News – Climate change around the world. [online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Jan. 2018].

Pacifici, M., Foden, W.B., Visconti, P., Watson, J.E., Butchart, S.H., Kovacs, K.M., Scheffers, B.R., Hole, D.G., Martin, T.G., Akçakaya, H.R. and Corlett, R.T., 2015. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 5(3), pp.215-224.

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Case Study Solutions of Achieve Patient Centered Care: MGMT8003

Case Study Solutions of Achieve Patient Centered Care: MGMT8003

Case Study:

Failure of the multidisciplinary team in providing person-centred care to patient resulting in readmission of patient and other sufferings:


Present day healthcare systems are striving to achieve new goals that have come up from the researches in the evidence based care approach. Person centred care is an effective way by which healthcare professionals include patients and their family members as equal partners in planning, developing and also monitoring care (Kogan et al. 2016). These are mainly done to make sure that the services provided to patients and family members not only meet their needs but also put them in the centre of decision making and also see them as experts. Researchers have clearly depicted that such an approach is not only about providing what the patients want or just giving them information which they want to know (Wildevuur and Simonse 2015). The healthcare professionals need to consider the desire, values, family situations, lifestyles, social circumstances and work with the patient as an individual to find out effective solution. It might seem that the entire concept is about activities entirely but in reality, it involves more about how healthcare professionals and patient think about their care and how their relationships develop during the time of admissions (Edvardsson, Sandman and Borell 2014). Present day researchers are of the opinion that person-centred care has a number of advantages than that traditional form of care which was applied in earlier decades. This approach helps in improving the quality of the services available (Herlitz 2017). They also help the patients to get the care that they need. They help patients and family members to be more active in looking after themselves and also help in reduction of pressure on health and social services. Researchers say that this approach helps in empowering the patients and their family members. Therefore they do not develop anxiety and stress which otherwise have negative outcomes on their health (Li and Parock 2014).

The Bloomsvalley Nursing home had been one of the most trusted nursing home in the locality of Samandra Jones who is a 68 year old lady. She has been suffering from chronic disorders like obesity and osteoarthritis. Her blood glucose level was also found to be quite high above 140 HG/mm and was also suffering from diabetes mellitus. Due to loss of mobility because of chronic pain in her knees, she has reduced walking. However, while walking in the garden in the evening, she had a fall due to which she had suffered a minor stroke. Several cuts were also found on her knees and arms and also on her faces which resulted in moderate bleeding. She was immediately admitted to the emergency ward and after staying there for four days, she was transferred to the rehab for further transition of care. She had a family of a son and daughter in law who had two toddlers. Her daughter in law was the main carer and had not completed her school. Her son used to own a departmental store in the local market. Both of them were quite nervous and at the same time quite scared. Their financial condition was stable.

An effective teamwork was needed among the multidisciplinary team members so that Samandra could have achieved higher satisfaction and effective health outcomes. There had been lots of areas where her dignity was hampered due to the ineffective teamwork of the healthcare professionals. Moreover, the family members were not treated properly and they were not involves in the care plan for the patient. Person centred care entirely failed and the team could not work together properly resulting in failure of meeting the objective of providing person centred-care.

After thoroughly interviewing the team members, it was found that the team coordinator was highly autocratic in nature and never behaved well with the nursing professionals. The junior professionals were continuously embarrassed in front of other members which resulted in affecting their morale. When confidentiality was promised to be maintained, one of the junior stated:

“As we are new to the organisation and also to our profession, we need guidance in many scenarios. However, it often becomes difficult for us to handle any serious situation effectively when we cannot get guidance from the team leader or the senior members. They are rude and we never know how they will behave. They make fun of us when we go with our queries. Many of our colleagues become highly demoralised and suffer emotionally”

There was lack of communication among the team members. Once it was seen that Ms. Sonia, a senior nurse professional had provided a medicine to the Samandra following which she needed sleep. She asked the patient to sleep and left her sleep. Within half an hour, the patient was attended by physiotherapist and asked her to prepare herself for the physiotherapy session. She was startled by this approach of the physiotherapy as he did not even ask for consent. This was immediately followed by the arrival of the speech therapist who instead of communicating with the physiotherapist asked the patient to prepare herself for her speech practices. Samandra had stated:

“ I was highly disappointed by the healthcare teams, firstly, they did not inform me what they are doing with me. I was not involved in the care plan and not also my family members. Secondly, none of the professionals acted professionally and there was clear picture of miscommunication among them. Soon they started arguing in front of me and I was feeling disgusting”

Another issue that was also noticed in the team was that there was lack of motivation among the team members. None of the workers were motivated and they were also not aware of the advantages of effective teamwork. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators were found to be absent which thereby resulted in development of boredom. The team members were not properly motivated and they were stated saying:

“After few days of joining the place, I realised that no one is interested in talking with each other. There is nothing to learn forward and there are very few people who look on this profession as their passion. There are no emotional attachments with the team members and therefore looking forward to learn new things is rare. Besides, there is very little scope of gratitude from the seniors and also there is no incentives, rewards and other. Therefore burning down is common”.

Another event which was also noticed is the trust issue. This trust issue mainly acted as barriers in providing patient-centred care. Samandra had stated that at the time, when she asked the immediate registered nurse with her about the food she would be getting that day, the registered nurse seemed clueless. She then called an immediate dietician on the floor who advised the nurse to provide her food free from sugar as she checked her blood sugar level to be high. The senior nurse came on the floor and she was furious to see that the patient was given food without her advice. Although the junior nurse confirmed that she had done so with the permission of the dietician, the senior nurse did not trust her. She talked to her rudely stating that she does not trust her and she might be telling a lie to escape penalties. Hence a power struggle and trust issues were also noticed that hampered person centred care. The diet should have been decided by the professionals through a meeting as it is an essential part of the treatment plan. Lack of trust and confidence among teams were clearly reflected in their activities. Samandra was heard saying:

“I saw one member took my blood glucose level test and again after few minutes another senior member took blood glucose level test as she was not sure about the previous test. I was not getting what was happening here. I started to feel scared about my health. I felt that something was wrong with my health for which they were doing the same task twice. When I wanted to know form the, they just said it needs to be done”.

This approach was totally against patient centred care. Preferences of the patient on her diet were not asked. Moreover they also did not care to make the patient understand the situation in details about why the test needs to be conducted. All these affected the principles of person centred care.

Blame games also were found among the team members. On one of the occasion, it was seen that medication for Samandra was missed and none of the professionals was ready to take on the blame. They were constantly blaming each other which not only resulted in development of conflicts but was resulting a stressful situations that affected smooth flow of work. Conflict resolution skills were also not present among them and therefore negative behaviours were noticed among the different healthcare staffs. Once, conflicts rose to a high level between the dietician and the health educator in Samandra’s case. The healthcare educator not only withdrew herself from the case but also left working in the hospital also. All these resulted in inappropriate care delivery by the multidisciplinary team which resulted her in readmissions, longer stays in hospitals and greater suffering which are against the benefits of person centred care. Her family members were suffering from depression and anxiety and were upset with the healthcare team. A complaint was lodged against them in the complaint cell.


What are the main reasons for the failure of the effective teamwork by the healthcare professionals in providing a person centred care?

The first issue that was observed among the team members was that they lacked proper organising and planning skills. It helps in the completion of tasks in a smooth way without creating issues in the future. Researchers suggest that teams which conduct proper planning, time management, project management, action planning and similar activities achieve success at a faster pace (Weller, Boyd and Cumin 2014). In the case study, it is seen that a large number of issues mainly rose as there was no prior planning and organising sessions among the healthcare professionals. The speech therapist, the nursing professional and the physiotherapist faced issues because they had not organised their meeting prior visiting the patient on the ward. Moreover, decision making is also another skill that should have been properly be inculcated in the professionals. Researchers are of the opinion that team members should be able to make decisions in a coordinated manner to make things move forward (Hastie, Boyd and Cumin 2014). In order to make the professionals get the scope of decision making, managers or leaders need to be careful and provide them with effective feedback so that they can develop the skills of proper decision making and critical reasoning. If the healthcare professionals would have got proper support from the care coordinator, they would have developed the expertise of proper decision making. This would have prevented sufferings of Samandra. Instead of being autocratic, he should have been transformational and should have provided them with scope of learning. Besides, problem solving and conflict resolution skills were also absent among the team members. Researchers are of the opinion that proper innovative ideas and positive attitude and outlook can help in effective conflict resolution (Mesmer et al. 2017). If the members attending Samandra could have effective problem solving skills and conflict resolution skills, the feud between the dietician and the healthcare educator would not have taken place. They could have used proper ideas and skills so that they could resolve the differences between them and develop a positive behaviour towards each other for the betterment of the patients. Besides, trust is one of the most important factors that should be developed in the team for preparing a better working environment. Trust was completely absent among the senior and junior members and power struggles took place as a result of this. When team members are able to trust each other, they are able to release a lot of stress from themselves and can be stable emotionally (Kozlowski et al. 2015). This prevents development of burnout feeling and also makes them feel motivated to work for each other (Casimiro et al. 2015).

How does effective communication act as important part of effective teamwork preventing failures?

The team leader holds the responsibility of training all the team members about the importance of communication. The training should have been conducted not only with juniors but also with seniors. Proper communication skills like feedback giving and receiving in con structure ways by all team members help others to develop the skills and knowledge and help one to recognise the mistakes he or she had conducted (Weller, Boyd and Cumin 2014). Not only does it help in skill and knowledge development but it also helps in building of rapport. Effective communication skills help in developing trust among the team members. This in turn helps in developing a positive working climate where everyone trusts each other and shares their physical and mental issues among themselves (Shockley-Zalabak 2014). This reduces stress and anxiety among the members. If effective communication would have been present, there would have been no trust issues and effective feedback giving and receiving would have taken place (Arora et al. 2015). The team members should also ensure that they develop skills in chairing meetings. In healthcare chairing meetings are extremely important so that all experts can sit together and decide a care plan which is appropriate for the patient (Carter et al. 2016). From the entire case study, it becomes quite clear that no formal meetings were conducted among the specialists of the multidisciplinary team. Therefore, conflicts were found among the physiotherapist, speech therapist, dietician, health educator and nursing professionals. They should have sat together and communicated their concerns in meetings so that patient care was not affected. Effective communication is also helpful in efficient action, encouraging input, encouraging dynamic change and creating understanding of different situations (Gluyas 2015). If the team members had proper communication skills, they could have provided proper patient centred care by communication with the patient and their family members about their needs and preferences which would have helped in meeting the objectives.


Arora, S., Hull, L., Fitzpatrick, M., Sevdalis, N. and Birnbach, D.J., 2015. Crisis management on surgical wards: a simulation-based approach to enhancing technical, teamwork, and patient interaction skills. Annals of surgery, 261(5), pp.888-893.

Carter, D.F., Ro, H.K., Alcott, B. and Lattuca, L.R., 2016. Co-curricular connections: The role of undergraduate research experiences in promoting engineering students’ communication, teamwork, and leadership skills. Research in Higher Education, 57(3), pp.363-393.

Casimiro, L.M., Hall, P., Kuziemsky, C., O’Connor, M. and Varpio, L., 2015. Enhancing patient-engaged teamwork in healthcare: An observational case study. Journal of interprofessional care, 29(1), pp.55-61.

Edvardsson, D., Sandman, P.O. and Borell, L., 2014. Implementing national guidelines for person-centered care of people with dementia in residential aged care: effects on perceived person-centeredness, staff strain, and stress of conscience. International Psychogeriatrics, 26(7), pp.1171-1179.

Gluyas, H., 2015. Effective communication and teamwork promotes patient safety. Nursing Standard, 29(49), pp.50-57.

Hastie, C., Fahy, K. and Parratt, J., 2014. The development of a rubric for peer assessment of individual teamwork skills in undergraduate midwifery students. Women and Birth, 27(3), pp.220-226.

Herlitz, A., 2017. Comparativism and the Grounds for Person-Centered Care and Shared Decision Making. The Journal of clinical ethics, 28(4), pp.269-278.

Kogan, A.C., Wilber, K. and Mosqueda, L., 2016. Person‐Centered Care for Older Adults with Chronic Conditions and Functional Impairment: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(1).

Kozlowski, S.W., Grand, J.A., Baard, S.K. and Pearce, M., 2015. Teams, teamwork, and team effectiveness: Implications for human systems integration. The handbook of human systems integration, pp.535-552.

Li, J. and Porock, D., 2014. Resident outcomes of person-centered care in long-term care: A narrative review of interventional research. International journal of nursing studies, 51(10), pp.1395-1415.

Mesmer-Magnus, J., Niler, A.A., Plummer, G., Larson, L.E. and DeChurch, L.A., 2017. The cognitive underpinnings of effective teamwork: a continuation. Career Development International, 22(5), pp.507-519.

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Weller, J., Boyd, M. and Cumin, D., 2014. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate medical journal, 90(1061), pp.149-154.

Weller, J., Boyd, M. and Cumin, D., 2014. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate medical journal, 90(1061), pp.149-154.

Wildevuur, S.E. and Simonse, L.W., 2015. Information and communication technology–enabled person-centered care for the “big five” chronic conditions: scoping review. Journal of medical Internet research, 17(3).

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Home Work Solutions of Discussion on OSHA Guidelines: BOS3525

Home Work Solutions of Discussion on OSHA Guidelines: BOS3525

Benefits of OSHA alliances The OSHA Alliance Program works with several groups with the aim of providing safety to the workers and maintaining their health status by preventing injuries, illnesses and fatalities. The program includes several consulates, professional and trade organizations, educational institutions and unions that develop and formulate compliance assistance resources and tools, while sharing relevant information with the employers and educating them about their responsibilities and roles (Lamba, 2013). Thus, it creates several health and safety products that help the employers to gain a sound understanding on the specific hazards that may occur in the industry.

The pamphlet on electrical hazards informs the employee about the hazards associated with work on aerial devices and also formulates guidelines (Zhang et al., 2013). The operator training for aerial equipment pamphlet helps the workers identify training practices for operation and inspection of aerial equipment. The potential hazards are identified by the fact sheet on baggage tug and carts, thereby preventing accidents due to equipment or aircraft damage.  Thus, the program increases the access of the employers to effective workplace health and safety tools. It also leverages resources for maximizing health protection and worker safety and establishes progressive dialogue with the agencies for establishing worker rights, thereby giving benefits to the employees (OSHA, 2013).

Procedure required for achieving STAR status- The Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) partners with worksites and business by recognizing their excellence in maintaining occupational health and safety. The sites that display commitment towards effective protecting of their employees beyond the requirements of the proposed OSHA standards are given the star status every three-five years. The primary objective of participating in the VPP instills a high degree of awareness on safety for all employees (Howard & Hearl, 2012). There are three levels of participation that include demonstration, merit and star. Meeting the merit goal is considered imperative for achieving the star status. Worksites that demonstrate good health management and safety provisions, in combination with the commitment to meet the goals tailored for each site are better suited for achieving the star status.

On-site evaluations assess the star eligibility requirements and performance. Therefore, an industry or worksite should demonstrate exemplary practice in comprehensive and successful management of health and safety systems in their setting (Brackey, 2013). It is essential for the companies to achieve an injury and illness rate below the national average for the respective industries. The companies should also be self-sufficient for controlling workplace hazards. An annual evaluation of the incident rates and re-evaluation every 3-5 years helps in conferring the star status (OSHA, 2009).

OSHA voluntary cooperative program for small business that prints letterheads- The On-site consultation program can be utilised by a small business that prints letterheads and business card. This program will offer confidential and free occupational health and safety advice. It will emphasise on preventing hazards at the worksites. Consultation by using the program will help employers to identify the potential hazards at their worksites. It will also create provisions for improving health hazard prevention strategies that already exist at their place (Mendeloff & Gray, 2012). The company may also qualify for a 1 year exemption for the routine inspections by OSHA. The consultation will be delivered by well trained staff from the state government, on-site and will make use of limited services that are available at the workplace.

The consultation will maintain confidentiality in terms of the company and all information related to the workplace (Autenrieth et al., 2015). Furthermore, the unhealthful and unsafe working conditions that exist in the organization will also not be during the routine OSHA inspection. The company is also eligible for the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) that will place it in an elite group of small companies that maintain exemplary illness and injury prevention strategies. It will help in building a reputation, providing protection and creating a better working environment (OSHA, 2013).

Role of challenge administrators- The OSHA Challenge was launched in the form of a pilot program in 2009 for helping workers and employees work in partnership with designated challenge administrators with the aim of improving and developing health and safety management programs. Criteria for challenge administrators include presence of a nonprofit corporation demonstrating experience and knowledge in health and safety management programs (Kastrinsky, 2013). The challenge administrators are responsible sponsoring specific number of participants who are considered eligible by the OSHA guidelines. The administrators have the responsibility of sponsoring at least 10 participants and serve as the primary point of contact of the former and OSHA. Their duties also involve appointing coordinators for managing and assisting activities of the selected participants.

These administrators also guide the participants through a series of well structured stages that helps the latter to make incremental improvements in the health and safety management system (Dudley & Morriss, 2015). The challenge administrators also have the responsibility of reporting on the progress demonstrated by the challenge participants on a periodic basis. They mentor the participants through the challenge stages by delivering technical assistance and support. Verifications are also performed through document reviews, site visits and telephone conferencing for determining whether the participants have met the stage requirements (OSHA, 2004).


Autenrieth, D. A., Brazile, W. J., Gilkey, D. P., Reynolds, S. J., June, C., & Sandfort, D. (2015). Client perceptions of occupational health and safety management system assistance provided by OSHA on-site consultation: results of a survey of Colorado small business consultation clients. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 12(11), 804-817.

Brackey, A. C. (2013). Process safety management: 21 years plus or minus: What i wish i’d known then and what we can’t afford to forget now!. Process Safety Progress, 32(3), 260-263.

Dudley, S. E., & Morriss, A. P. (2015). Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?. Risk Analysis, 35(7), 1191-1196.

HOwArd, J., & HeArl, F. (2012). Occupational Safety and Health in the USA: Now and the Future. Industrial health, 50(2), 80-83.

Kastrinsky, H. M. (2013). EEOC Issues Draft of 2012–2016 Strategic Plan• IRS Provides Guidance for Determining Full‐Time Status for Purposes of Affordable Care Act• DOL Tip Credit Regulations Survive Court Challenge• DOL Issues New FMLA Guidebook• OSHA Revises Whistleblower Procedures• New Fair Credit Reporting Form Goes into Effect. Employment Relations Today, 39(4), 53-58.

Lamba, A. (2013). Practice designing out hazards in the real world. Professional Safety, 58(1), 34.

Mendeloff, J., & Gray, W. (2012). OSHA does not kill jobs; It helps prevent jobs from killing workers. American journal of industrial medicine, 55, 961-963.

Occupational safety and health administration directorate of cooperative and state programs, . (2004). OSHA Challenge Pilot. Retrieved from

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Zhang, S., Teizer, J., Lee, J. K., Eastman, C. M., & Venugopal, M. (2013). Building information modeling (BIM) and safety: Automatic safety checking of construction models and schedules. Automation in Construction, 29, 183-195.

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Assignment Answers: Manage Organisational Systems: BSBCUS501

Assignment Answers: Manage Organisational Systems: BSBCUS501


a. Discuss a recommendation you made to management to improve on meeting customers’ needs. What methods did you use to assess customer needs?

The learner is working as a marketing consultant for Marriott International Hotel in Hong Kong. My role includes doing the market research in regards to the current trend in the market and the service standard of the Marriott International Hong Kong. Marriott International is internationally known as a hotel chain that provides an utmost customer service standard. However, I did find some negative reviews from few of the customers on the menu offered to them. I had then recommended the management team to conduct a thorough research on the fact to identify whether it is genuine.

There are several methods to assess the customer needs; however, the learner has used the different social media platforms to identify the customer responses. The learner is a marketing consultant for Marriott International Hong Kong had thought this as the most productive and accessible way to closely monitor the customer responses (Brandon-Jones et al. 2016).

b. Outline your organization’s Customer Service standard. How do you monitor how effectively the Standard is applied in the workplace? 

Marriott International is one of the very few hotel chains in the entire world which is widely known for its customer service standard. Customer service standard can be understood from its strategies which are entirely focused on raising the level of customer service. The company believes in “Think Global, Act Local” which means that it wishes to operate at the global level and that too with an utmost customer service standard. To fulfill the purpose, the company desirably plans the operation strategically. Selecting the strategic locations, using also the sustainable resources and deploying the educated & skilled employees are the few strategies that the learner’s company adapt to enhance its customer service standard ( 2018).

Monitoring can be done in ample of ways such as by monitoring the phone calls, asking customers for feedback and monitoring the customer’s comments on the different social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and others. However, the learner has chosen to monitor the customer’s feedback on the various online resources as mentioned earlier (Manhas and Tukamushaba 2015).

c. How does your organization promote and encourage good customer service?

Different organizations have distinguished ways of approaching the customer service standard (Dhar 2015). Unlike the other companies, Marriott International has a very unconventional take on the customer service standard. They believe that every single customer is important to them which are why they put emphasis on satisfying every single customer. They also believe in anticipate the customer needs with the help of different resources and then deliver them accordingly to enhance the customer service level. Employees in the company are instructed to entertain the communication at a time when it is not suitable as per the business rules. They empower their employees to make decisions, so that, they feel the ownership and do the needful in regards to customer service prior to instructions from the management team on the same ( 2018). 


Brandon-Jones, A., Lewis, M., Verma, R. and Walsman, M.C., 2016. Examining the characteristics and managerial challenges of professional services: An empirical study of management consultancy in the travel, tourism, and hospitality sector. Journal of Operations Management, 42, pp.9-24.

Dhar, R.L., 2015. Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Tourism Management, 46, pp.419-430.

Manhas, P.S. and Tukamushaba, E.K., 2015. Understanding service experience and its impact on brand image in hospitality sector. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 45, pp.77-87. 2018. Core Values and Heritage | Marriott International Corporate Values. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Jan. 2018].

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