Running head: ESSAY
Name of the Student
Name of the University
The advent of many information technology …
Running head: ESSAY
Name of the Student
Name of the University
The advent of many information technology in healthcare has led to the identification
of its various merits and demerits. One such technological advent is the electronic health
record system or EHR which is areal-time and patient-centred record that makes information
about the patients available instantly and in a secure fashion to the authorised users. The
health information can be both produced and managed by the healthcare professionals
involved in the care of a person, in a digital format, which can later be shared with other
healthcare organisations for their purposes (Mennemeyer et al., 2016). The system, after its
introduction has been adapted by many healthcare organisations and studies have been
conducted to determine its advantages and disadvantages.
Article 1: Campanella, P., Lovato, E., Marone, C., Fallacara, L., Mancuso, A., Ricciardi, W.,
& Specchia, M. L. (2016). The impact of electronic health records on healthcare quality: a
systematic review and meta-analysis. The European Journal of Public Health ,26 (1), 60-64.
This article is ameta-analysis as well as systematic review of the various included
studies which were focused on determining the impact of the EHR system on the healthcare
quality. The various research articles published in this aspect were searched in databases like
Scopus, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and around 47 articles were
included in this analysis. The association between the EHR system implementation and the
process or the outcome indicators, was determined in these studies by two researchers
according to the PRISMA study. The research findings were in accordance with the reduction
in documentation time with the implementation of the EHR system. The heterogeneity in the
research articles were was quantified using the 12 statistics and Cochran QQ test. The results
of this study also revealed that the EHR system lead to an increased adherence to guidelines.
The EHR implementation also reduced the number of medication errors. EHR system also
lowered the adverse drug effects in some studies but no connection was found between EHR
and reduction in mortality.
Article 2: Bae, J., & Encinosa, W. E. (2016). National estimates of the impact of electronic
health records on the workload of primary care physicians. BMC health services
research ,16 (1), 1-11.
This study was focused on determining whether EHR adoption had an impact on the
national primary care shortage and the primary care workload efficiency. The study was
performed in a nationwide representative sample which consisted of 37, 962 patients and
1470 primary care physicians in USA within aperiod of 2006 and 2009. The adoption of the
EHR system being carried out by many physicians led to this nation-wide study. The effect of
the EHR adoption on the patient â€™sface time per visit and the physician â€™svolume of patient
per week at various points of time were to be determined. The results of the study were based
on the basic use of EHR, which included the computerised order for the prescriptions,
inputting of patient â€™s demographic details, clinical notes and viewing the image and
laboratory results. Results of this study indicated that the EHR use resulted in areduction in
the weekly patient volume in younger physicians but the opposite was noticed in older
physicians and that the system can enhance the productivity of primary care physicians.
Article 3: Jabour, A. M. (2020). The impact of electronic health records on the duration of
patients â€™visits: Time and motion study. JMIR medical informatics ,8(2), e16502.
A time and motion study, the impact of EHR on the duration of the visits of patients
was determined in this study. The study was focused on determining the effect of the EHR
system on the extent of time spent by the patients on various tasks when they are visiting the
primary health care (PHC) centres. Various studies have reported that EHR implementation
can generate many unintentional changes in workflow if it is not implemented properly. This
study thus focused on these changes and the impact on the time spent by patients with
physicians or during other activities. The results of the study showed no important difference
between the extent of time spent by the patients in waiting and reception area, at the
pharmacy, or in consultation time after the implementation of the EHR system. But, a
significant difference was found between the amount of time spent in various tasks between
the rural and the metropolitan PHC centres. A reduction in the registration time was also
shown in this study.
Article 4: Kruse, C. S., Mileski, M., Vijaykumar, A. G., Viswanathan, S. V., Suskandla, U.,
& Chidambaram, Y. (2017). Impact of electronic health records on long-term care facilities:
systematic review. JMIR medical informatics ,5(3), e35.
This study was focused on determining the impact of EHR on the long term care
facilities in USA. This study was thus focused on determining the prospective benefits of
implementing the EHR system in long term facilities. This study was conducted as there
exists some lag in the implementation of EHR in the LTC facilities. This systematic review
thus included athorough search of research articles on established databases and 28 articles
were finally included. The results of the systematic review revealed that substantial
development in the management of LTC facilities documentation and enhancement of quality
was determined. Many research articles showed mixed results of the impact of EHR on the
documentation process of the LTC facilities and around 33% of the papers stated apositive
quality outcome in the HER system implementation. The positive impact of the clinical
documentation after the implementation of the EHR system in LTC facilities has thus been
established in this systematic review.
Thus, the above research articles revealed that the implementation of EHR leads to an
increase in adherence to medication guidelines, reduction in medication errors, reduction in
adverse drug effects, better documentation system, reduction in registration time and increase
in patient volume (Evans, 2016). The results thus showed that EHR system implementation
has many benefits as well as drawbacks, each of which should be weighed and considered
before its implementation in ahealthcare facility.
Bae, J., & Encinosa, W. E. (2016). National estimates of the impact of electronic health
records on the workload of primary care physicians. BMC health services
research ,16 (1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1422-6
Campanella, P., Lovato, E., Marone, C., Fallacara, L., Mancuso, A., Ricciardi, W., &
Specchia, M. L. (2016). The impact of electronic health records on healthcare quality:
asystematic review and meta-analysis. The European Journal of Public Health ,26 (1),
Evans, R. S. (2016). Electronic health records: then, now, and in the future. Yearbook of
medical informatics ,25 (S 01), S48-S61. DOI: 10.15265/IYS-2016-s006
Graber, M. L., Byrne, C., & Johnston, D. (2017). The impact of electronic health records on
diagnosis. Diagnosis ,4(4), 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1515/dx-2017-0012
Jabour, A. M. (2020). The impact of electronic health records on the duration of patients â€™
visits: Time and motion study. JMIR medical informatics , 8(2), e16502. Doi:
Kruse, C. S., Mileski, M., Vijaykumar, A. G., Viswanathan, S. V., Suskandla, U., &
Chidambaram, Y. (2017). Impact of electronic health records on long-term care
facilities: systematic review. JMIR medical informatics , 5(3), e35.
Mennemeyer, S. T., Menachemi, N., Rahurkar, S., & Ford, E. W. (2016). Impact of the
HITECH act on physicians â€™adoption of electronic health records. Journal of the
American Medical Informatics Association , 23 (2), 375-379.